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The churches of Florence date, for the most part, 
from before the XI century, though few show 
any remains of their original construction. The 
Baptistery (formerly the Cathedral), S. Miniato, and 
the Bad ia of Fiesole still retain their ancient ^p^/^j, 
but for the most part the buildings in their present 
state date from the XIII and XIV centuries. 
These early churches were originally covered with 
frescoes, chiefly by Giotto and his immediate fol- 
lowers. They are attributed mostly to Spinello 
Aretino, a name that has become almost a generic 
term for Giottesque work of the XIV century. 

Few of these frescoes remain. Many of them, 
already in a state of decay, were destroyed in the 
XV century to make way for new paintings. The 
walls of the churches of Florence are a palimpsest, 
and for the most part, therefore, the Giottesque 
frescoes are irrecoverably destroyed. Ghirlandaio, 
for example, painted over the half-ruined frescoes 
of Orcagna in the Choir of S. Maria Novella, and 
Alesso Baldovinetti destroyed earlier work to re- 
paint the Choir of S. Triniti. Many, however, 


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still existed in the middle of the XVI century when 
Vasari published his " Lives of the Painters." He 
describes some of the frescoes destroyed by his own 
hand with a minuteness of detail which proves 
them to have been well preserved. The whole- 
sale destruction, not only of the paintings but of the 
architectural features of the ancient buildings (such 
as the tramezziy which separated the monks from the 
lay worshippers), is due to Cosimo I., who seems 
to have had little sympathy with the Giottesque 
painters. " The Lord Duke as Catholic prince^'* 
writes Vasari, " in imitation of the great King Solomony 
was pleased to rebuild and to restore to better form and 
greater beauty the temples and Holy Churches of God^^ 
(Vas. vii. 710.) During his reign most of the chief 
churches, including S. Croce, S. Maria Novella, 
and S. Lorenzo, underwent complete alteration, 
under the direction of his architect Vasari, who, 
without apparent scruple, ordered the destruction 
of paintings described by him with seeming appre- 
ciation and occasional enthusiasm. The dull and 
heavy grey stone altars, with their still duller and 
heavier altar-pieces, cut through the continuous 
harmonious line of frescoed walls, such fragments 
as remained between being whitewashed over. 
Chapels painted by Giotto himself were later en- 
crusted with tasteless coloured marbles, and so 
complete was the work of destruction that at the 
beginning of the last century hardly one of the XIV 

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century frescoes were visible. The old altar-pieces, 
priceless for their decorative value of painting and 
gilded Gothic framework, were relegated to the 
sacristies and storerooms, and were replaced by 
dramatic and tasteless oil-painting by Vasari's fol- 
lowers. Thanks to the revival of artistic feel- 
ing, reactionary on the miserably depraved taste 
of the early XIX century, efforts were made in 
the middle of the last century to uncover some of 
the frescoes known to exist under the whitewash, 
but (as in the case of the paintings of Giotto in the 
Cappella Peruzzi in S. Croce, uncovered in 1841, 
and of Spinello in the Sacristy of S. Miniato) these 
were restored by painters so ignorant even of the 
style of the epoch as to have lost almost completely 
their original character. Recently the work of 
removing the whitewash has proceeded rapidly — 
every year some masterpiece of Giottesque art is un- 
covered — but unfortunately these paintings, being 
regarded solely from the point of view of decora- 
tion, are at once so completely repainted that little 
remains of the original except the composition and 

As regards the XV century altar-pieces painted 
for the churches, few are to be found in their 
original place, having been either removed by the 
owners of the chapels for which they were executed 
to make way for paintings of a later date, sold, or 
placed in the galleries. The transept of S. Spirit© 

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is the only place in Florence where such altar- 
pieces remain in their original frames and upon 
their original painted Altars, in any quantity. 

It would be impossible within the space at my 
command to mention all the old frescoes and altar- 
pieces of which record exists in Richa's "Florentine 
Churches," and in the older chroniclers of Florentine 
art, but I have noticed most of those of impoftance 
mentioned by Vasari — the frescoes which still existed 
in his day, and from what Altars came some of the 
most famous paintings in Florentine and foreign 

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S; LOaEHZO. ♦. Y 

S. LUCIA DE' MAGNOLI. • .^^ ' 














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The translations from Vasari are my own, the edition 
used being that of Sansoni with Milanesi's notes, Le 
Fite del Phtorij &c., Firenze, 1878. The quotations 
are printed in italics. Each painting has been studied 
by myself, and the latest discoveries and attributions 

An alphabetical index of the painters whose works 
are mentioned, with their dates, is appended. 

Where the date is inscribed on the picture, or docu- 
mentarily authenticated, it is placed after the name of 
the work. 

One asterisk (*) denotes that the work is worthy of 
special attention, two (**) that it is a great masterpiece. 

The names of the Saints that are better known in 
Italian have been left in that language. 

The publisher is indebted to Signor Jacquier, Via 
Guicciardini, Florence, for permission to reproduce his 
photographs. All are his, with the exception of the 
illustrations on pages 83, 84, 212, and 274, which are 
reproduced from photographs by Alinari, Florence, and 
those on pages 14, 16, 116, 117, 128, 138, 191, 206, 
216, 251, 267, and 269, which are by Brogi, Florence. 

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In order to make the guide an easy book of reference, 
the names of the Churched and Museums have been 
printed in a large black type, and the names of chapels 
in Churches have been printed in a similar type only 
smaller. On the left-hand pages the headlines give 
the name of the building, and on the right-hand pages 
the place in the building where the pictures are to be 


ATT.— Attributed to. 
O.W.— Oil on Wood. 
O.C. — Oil on Canvas. 
T.W. — Tempera on Wood. 
FR. — Fresco. 

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The Church of S. Ambrogio dates from the 
X century and was the first convent for nuns in 
Florence. It is much modernised, and little remains 
of the original building and decorations. Thc/agaJe 
was restored in 1888. Some good frescoes of the 
XIV century were found not many years ago beneath 
the XVII century altar-pieces. 

Entrance Wall 

(Left.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Th 

Martyrdom of S, Sebastian. FR. 

Part of a large fresco belonging to the original decora- 
tion. The saint is bound to a tree, while three figures 
gorgeously dressed shoot arrows, and another in sacer- 
dotal vestments holds out his arms to him. Below is 
the small figure of the donor. The right side of the 
fresco has perished. 

Right Aisle 

(ist Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 5. 

Romualdo Enthroned^ with S, Ambrogio and 

Tobias and the Archangel, T.w. 

In the lunette the Annunciation. An interesting 
painting, but much blackened and ruined. 

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(2nd Altar.) ATT. AGNOLO GADDI. Ma^ 

donna Enthroned between S. Bartholomew and 
the Baptist, FR. 

Part of the old decoration discovered beneath the 
altar-piece. It is much and badly repainted, especi- 
ally the head of S. Bartholomew, but in spite of this 
has great beauty and dignity. 

(3rd Altar.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. The Depo^ 
sit ion, FR. 

Part of the old decoration discovered beneath the 
altar-piece. The Virgin and Evangelist on the left 
receive the body of Christ, and the Magdalen kneels 
at the foot of the Cross. 

Left Aisle 

(2nd Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Ma^ 

donna Enthroned with Saints, T.W. 

Triptych. The Virgin is enthroned between SS. 
Cosimo and Damiano. On each wing a saint. 
Formerly in the Sacristy. 

(On Tabernacle containing the figure of S. Sebastian 
by Lionardo del Tasso.) 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The Annunciation. 


A charming painting, showing the influence of Filip- 
pino Lippi. 




*(3rd Altar.) COSIMO ROSSELLI. The As- 
sumption of the Firgin^ with SS. Ambrogio and 
Francesco, In the Predella : 1.5. Francis 
receiving the Chart of his Order. 2. The 
Reception of the Stigmata, 7. The Death of 
S. Francis. 1498. T.w. 

" He painted in his youth in the Church of Sanf 
Ambruogio in Florence, a picture which is on the right 
on entering the church."*^ (Vas. iii. 184.) 

It was painted really when he was fifty-nine, as the 
document of commission proves. Much ruined. 

(Chapel of the Sacrament.) COSIMO ROS- 
SELLI. The Procession of the Miraculous 
Chalice^ and other frescoes, i486. FR. 

" For the nuns of S. Ambruogio he painted the Chapel 
of the Miracle of the Sacrament, which work is excellent 
and of all those by him in Florence is held to be the 
best ; in which he painted a procession in the piazza 
of the said church, where the Bishop carries the Taber- 
nacle of the Miracle, accompanied by the priests and 
an infinite number of citizens and ladies in the costume 
of the day. Besides many others is there portrayed 
from life, Pico della Mirandola, so excellently that it 
seems no portrait, but alive. "^^ (Vas. iii. 185.) 

The legend, as narrated by Villani, goes that in 
1230 a priest named Ugoccione forgot to clean the 
chalice, and the following day found the drops of wine 
left in it changed to blood. The Tabernacle con- 
taining the chalice is the work of Mino da Fiesoie, 
who received the commission in 1481 from the Abbess 

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of the convent. Madonna Maria Barbadori, and the 
frescoes, ordered by the same Abbess, were completed 
in i486, as the document of payment proves. 

In the vaulting are the four Evangelists, on either 
side of the Tabernacle Angels adoring, and on the left 
is the large scene of the Procession, the masterpiece 
of the painter. Before the Church of S. Ambrogio 
the Bishop holds the miraculous chalice, to which 
priests kneel in adoration. Behind is a dense throng 
of people of every rank and age, mostly divided into 
groups of three. At the foot of the steps to the 
right are three women with fair hair, in the fore- 
ground beyond a young girl leads two children by the 
hand. All these figures have great charm and are 
evidently studied from life. On the left is a group of 
three priests kneeling before the steps, and near them 
three young men, and to the extreme left three older 
men. On the second plane are figures of great beauty, 
all having the individuality of portraits. Of special 
charm is a group of four young girls, their hair in 
long plaits down their backs, and behind them three 
older ladies of great beauty. Farther back the figures 
are packed more closely, and among them to the left 
is the portrait of Pico del la Mirandola mentioned by 
Vasari. He is seen nearly full face in red doublet 
with black sleeves and violet cap. On the steps to 
the right is inscribed cosimo roselli f. 

The chief defect of the painting is the lack of 
concentration in the composition. It might be divided 
into twenty charming scenes, each with its own point 
of interest, but the general effect is crowded and con- 
fused. Its chief interest is in the faces and costumes, 
which illustrate the life of the time most vividly. 
Cosimo Rosselli, inclined at times to be common- 
place and even vulgar in his types, has here shown 
himself capable of work as dainty as Botticelli's. In 
the same year in which he finished this fresco he 

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painted for the convent of the same church eight 
frescoes in the dormitories of the nuns. (Vas. iii. 
i86, note i ) 


GRAFFIONE. Madonna adoring the 
Christ Chi/dy with Saints and Angels, T.w. 

This interesting altar-piece was discovered two years 
ago by Mr. Herbert Home. (See Burlington Maga- 
zine^ October 1905.) It is a large altar-piece on 
wood with an arched top. The Madonna in the 
centre is by II Graffione, pupil of Baldovinetti, and 
replaced a hexagonal tabernacle round which Baldo- 
vinetti had painted the Saints and Angels. The lines 
where the painting has been inserted are plainly visible. 
Baldovinetti's work consists of the Baptist, S. Lor- 
enzo, and the other male and female Saints, with 
Angels flying above and two child-angels in the fore- 
ground. The painting is badly damaged, much of the 
colour having peeled off the panel. 

For the High Altar of this church Fra Filippo 
painted in 1447 his masterpiece, The Coronation of 
the Virgin — now in the Accademia, No. 62. 

" He 'painted for the ladies of 5. Ambruogio a most 
beautiful picture for the High Altar, which made him 
very dear to Cosimo de* Medici, who because of it 
became his great friend.^^ (Vas. ii. 615.) 

For the Altar of S. Lorenzo Alesso Baldovinetti 
painted, in 1470, The Birth of the Virgin, at the com- 
mission of Domenico Maringhi. The painting is no 
longer in existence. (Vas. iii. 599, note 2.) 





The Church of the SS. Annunziata was founded in 
1250 by the Servite monk, Benedetto Buonfiglid. In 
possession of a miraculous picture of the Annuncia- 
tion, whose fame attracted rich gifts, the church and 
convent were Continually being enlarged and redecorated. 
It was the custom in the XIV and XV centuries for 
those who had received help from this miraculous 
painting to offer votive images of themselves made of 
wax and clad in their own costumes. Some were of 
much artistic value, Verrocchio himself having modelled 
several. The chief maker was Orsini Benintendi, 
whose family had been employed from father to son 
in the work, and had gained the name of Fallimagini. 
In 1447 the church was so full of these images that 
shelves had to be inserted in the walls to accommodate 
them, and when these were full they were suspended 
from the roof. In 1630 there were 600 such life- 
sized figures, several of them on horseback. In 1665 
they were removed from the church as encumbrances 
and placed in the small cloister. As late as the end 
of the XVIII century several were still in existence, 
but not one now remains in Florence, having been 
entirely destroyed by the Grand Duke Leopold I. 

The SS. Annunziata is the richest and most fashion- 
able church in Florence. The Loggia over the en- 
trance dates from different times, the central arch 
being built by Antonio di S. Gallo and enlarged in 
1 601. It has been recently restored. Over the 
entrance is a mosaic representing the Annunciation, 
attributed by Vasari to Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, but in 
reality by his uncle David. The door to the right 
gives access to the private chapel of the Pucci family, 
chief patrons of the church, whose stemma — the 
negro's head — decorates the facade. For this altar 

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was painted in 1470, by Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo, 
7he Martyrdom of 5. Sebastian^ now in the National 

First Cloister 

The small cloister preceding the church was built at 
the commission of Piero de' Medici by Manetti, pupil 
of Brunellesco, in 1447. The frescoes were pamted 
between the years 1460 and 15 16 in the following 



2 COSIMO ROSSELLI. .S. Filippo Benizzi 

taking the Servite habit, 1476. 

3 ANDREA DEL SARTO. S. Filippo doth- 

ing a Leper. 1 509- 1 5 1 0. 

4 ANDREA DEL SARTO. S, Filippo punish- 

ing Gamesters who mocked him, 1 509-15 1 0. 

5 ANDREA DEL SARTO. S, Filippo exor- 

cising the Devil from a Toung Girl, 1509- 

6 ANDREA DEL SARTO. The Death of 

S. Filippo. 1510. 

7 ANDREA DEL SARTO. The Healing of 

Children by the Garments of S, Filippo, 1510. 

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8 ANDREA DEL SARTO. The Adoration 

of the Magi, 151 1. 

9 FRANCIABIGIO. The Marriage of the 

Virgin. 1513. 

10 ROSSO FIORENTINO. The Assumption 

of the Firgin. 1513. 

11 ANDREA DEL SARTO. The Birth of 

the Firgin, 1 5 14. 

12 PONTORMO. The Fisitation. 1515-1516. 

Vasari writes at length in his different lives of the 

" At that time in the Convent of the Servites . . . a 
sacristan friar called Fra Mariano del Canto alia 
Macine, having heard from all much praise of Andrea 
. . . thought to satisfy at little cost a desire which he 
had. And thus tempting with the honour Andrea, who 
was a sweet and good man, he persuaded him under 
pretext of charity to he willing to aid in a thing which 
would bring him fame and profit, . . . Many years 
before in the first cortile of the Servi Alesso Baldovinetti 
had painted on the facade of the Annunziata a Nativity 
of Christ , . . and Cosimo Rosselli on another side of 
the same cortile had begun a scene where S, FilippOy 
founder of the Servite order, takes the habit; which 
scene Cosimo had not completed because he died while 
he was at work upon it. The frate desiring greatly 
to continue the work, bethought himself (turning to 
profit that Andrea and Francia " [Franciabigio] " once 
friends, had lately become rivals) that they should 
compete together and each of them paint a part, so thaty 

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besides being better served by them, the cost would be 
lessened and their efforts increased. Wherefore opening 
his mind to Andrea he 'persuaded him to undertake the 
work, arguing that the place being public and much^ 
frequented, he would by means of it be made known no 
less to strangers than to Florentines ; for which reason he 
ought not to think of being paid, nor wait to be urged, 
but rather the contrary ; and if he would not do it, 
Francia, to make a name, had offered to do it and to 
leave the price to him. . . . l^his last spur induced 
Andrea to decide and to sign an agreement for the 
whole work so that no other should have a hand therein. 
The frate therefore, having engaged him and given him 
money, desired that first he should continue the life of 
S, Filippo and should not receive in payment more than 
ten ducats for each painting, . . . 

" Pursuing the work therefore with the greatest 
diligence, as one who thought more of honour than gain, 
Andrea finished in a short time the first three scenes 
and uncovered them. . . . These brought to him the 
greatest honour and fame. Wherefore, encouraged, he 
continued to paint two other scenes in the same cortile. 
. . . And that side being finished, the price seeming to 
him too little and the honour too much, he resolved to 
renounce the remainder of the work, notwithstanding 
the grief of the frate, who would not free him from the 
pact except Andrea would first promise him to paint 
two other scenes at his own convenience, the frate aug~ 
menting the price. And thus they were agreed."*^ (Vas. 
V, 10, &c.) 

♦(East Wall. Left of Entrance.) ALESSO 
BALDOVINETTI. The Nativity. 1460- 

1462. FR. 

" He painted in the Nunziata of Florence, in the 
cortile, exactly behind the wall where is painted the 

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Annunciation " (the miraculous picture), " a picture 
in fresco retouched a secco, in which is a 'Nativity of 
Christy done with so much care and diligence that in 
a hut there painted one might count the Hades and 
knots of the straw. He imitated also in a ruined house 
the worn stones, rotted and consumed by the rain and 
ice, with a 'plant of large ivy which covers part of that 
wall ; where it may be observed that with much patience 
he painted of one green the front of the leaves and of 
another the back, neither more nor less than in nature ; 
and besides the shepherds he painted a serpent or snake 
that creeps up the wall most naturally, ^^ (Vas. ii. 595.) 
The fresco is in a state of the utmost ruin, thanks 
to Alesso's method of painting on the dry plaster. In 
parts it is completely effaced, and what remains has 
been much restored. In the centre the Virgin kneels 
before the Child. Right is S. Joseph seated, nursing 
his knee in a very natural attitude. The ox and ass 
are watching the Child. Two shepherds come forward. 
Left in the middle distance two others with a flock 
of sheep gaze up shading their eyes at the angels who 
hover overhead. Right is a ruined building, and left 
stretches a spacious landscape — the Arno valley which 
Antonio Pollaiuolo loved to paint. The fresco is 
surrounded by an imitation frame in which are medal- 
lions with heads of men which seem to be portraits, 
four in Florentine costume, three with crowns — the 
shepherds and the Magi. It was commissioned in 
1460 for 20 Jtortni dt sugello^ money left to the convent 
by Arrigo Arrigucci, and was finished 1462. 

♦(North Wall.) COSIMO ROSSELLI. S. Fillppo 

Benizzi taking the habit of the Servite Order, 

1476. FR. 

" He painted in the Church of the Servites . , , in 
the first cortile before the entrance of the Church, in 

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fresco^ the scene where the Beato Filippo takes the habit 
of Our Lady:' (Vas. iii. 184.) 

The scene is divided into two parts. On the right 
the Saint is seen as a fair-haired youth, kneeling by 
the altar of a chapel with a monk behind laying his 
hand on his shoulder. On the left he kneels naked 
before the Prior and monks in front of the SS. 
Annunziata. This is of special interest as showing 
the Church as it existed in the XV century, surrounded 
by meadows and vineyards, with the Duomo seen in 
the distance. Vasari states that Rosselli died before 
it was finished, but it seems certain that it was painted 
in 1476, thirty-one years before his death. 

♦ANDREA DEL SARTO. .S. Filippo Benizzi 
clothing a Leper. 1 509-15 10. IR. 

The scene illustrates how the Saint, going to the papal 
conference at Viterbo, meets a naked leper and stripping 
off his shirt clothes him. It is divided into four scenes. 
Far back in the distance the Saint with his two com- 
panions is seen advancing. A little nearer he takes 
off his shirt while his companions talk with the leper. 
To the right he gives his shirt to the leper, and in the 
foreground the three monks pursue their journey, the 
beggar clad in the shirt hastening forward to bless 
them. In the Uffizi is a study in red chalk of the 
nude beggar. 

♦ANDREA DEL SARTO. 8, Filippo Benizzi 

punishing Gamesters who have mocked him, 

I 509-1 5 10. FR. 

" Re painted where S. Filippo reproves some gamesters 
who were blaspheming God, and they mock at him, 
making merry with his admonishments ; suddenly a 

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thunderbolt falls from heaven and strikes a tree under 
whose shade they were, kills two and puts the rest into 
incredible fear. Some with their hands to their heads 
throw themselves dismayed out of the way, others all 
terrified take to flight screaming, and a woman, beside 
herself with fear and at the noise of the thunderbolt, is 
flying so naturally that she seems actually alive ; and 
a horse having broken loose at so much noise and terror, 
with his plunges and terrible bounds, shows how things 
judden and unexpected cause dismay. . . ." (Vas. 

V. 12.) 

The scene is treated most dramatically, and the 
figures have more movement than is usual with Andrea. 
The landscape is of great beauty. 

♦ANDREA DEL SARTO. .S. Fi/ippo Benizzi 
exorcising the Devil from a Young Girl, 
1 509-1 5 10. FR. 

The girl in the centre in a paroxysm of madness is 
supported by her parents and brother. To the left are 
the Saint and his companions. The scene takes place 
before xYie facade of a palace through the central arch 
of which is seen a distant landscape. The excellence 
of the architecture in these frescoes as in those of the 
Scalzo, will be noticed. 

*(West Wall.) ANDREA DEL SARTO. TJu 
Death of S, Filippo Benizzi, 1 509-15 1 0. 

" On one wall he painted S, Filippo dead and his 
monks around bewailing him, and besides this a dead 
child, which touching the bier on which is the Saint, is 
revived. And it is seen first dead and then resuscitated 

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and livings with much fine observation and most real 
and true,^'* (Vas. v. 12.) 

This is one of the best of the series. The figure of 
the Saint is admirably drawn, and the two figures of the 
child are treated with great realism. Baldinucci 
relates that some masons, cutting holes for their 
scaffolding on the other side of this wall, broke 
through the fresco and destroyed t)vo of the heads, 
the plaster falling to the ground. The painter 
Passignano searched among the debris till he found the 
fragments, which he replaced in the fresco with so 
much care that the damage was hardly visible. 

*ANDREA DEL SARTO. The Healing of the 
Sick by the Garments of S, Filippo. 1510. 

" In the last on that side he fainted the frati who 
touch with the garments of 5. Filiffo the heads of some 
children, and in this he portrayed Andrea della Robhia, 
the sculptor, as an old man clothed in red, who advances 
stooping and with a stick in his hand. Also he por- 
trayed Luca his son, and likewise, in that already 
mentioned, where S, Filippo lies dead, he portrayed 
Girolamo, also a son of Andrea, a sculptor and his 
great friend, who died not long ago in France. ^^ 
(Vas. V. 13.) 

Before an altar a priest presents the garments of the 
Saint to a woman who carries a child. The mother 
kneeling close by is a portrait of Lucrezia del Fede 
whom Andrea married six years later. The faces 
have nearly all the individuality of portraits. The man 
standing to the right second from the altar is Andrea 
himself, and the other hastily mounting the steps to the 
left is probably Luca della Robbia the younger, son of 
Andrea. The portrait of Andrea della Robbia is to 

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the right — the old man leaning on a stick and clasping 
his knee as though gouty. He would have been 

Miracle of S. Filippo Bknizzi 
Andrea del Sarto. SS. Annunsiata. 

seventy-five years old at the time. Inscribed on the 
steps is the date a • d • m • d • x.. 

♦(East Wall.) ANDREA DEL SARTO. Th 
Adoration of the Magi, 1 5 1 1 , FR. 

" Andrea fainted the three Magi of the East, who, 
guided by the star, go to adore the little child Jesus 

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Christ; and he fainted them dismounting as though 
arrived near their destination^ because only the space 
of the two doors was between them and the Nativity of 
Christ by Alesso Baldovinetti, In which scene Andrea 
fainted the court of those three kings following behind 
with equifages and servants. And among them in a 
corner^ portrayed from life, are three persons clad in 
the Florentine habit; one is Jacopo Sansovino, who 
looks towards the spectator — a full-length figure. The 
other leaning towards him, whose arm is foreshortened 
pointing, is Andrea, Master of the work, and another 
head in profile behind Jacopo, is Aiolle the musician} 
There are besides some putti who climb upon a wall to 
see go by the -magnificent procession and the strange 
beasts that those three kings bring with them.^* (Vas. 
V. 16.) 

The fresco is sigDcd od the stone in the foreground 
with the interlaced A. It is the least successful of 
the paintings, the figures being self-conscious, without 
movement and ill grouped. One feels that, as Vasari 
relate?, it was painted under compulsion. 

♦(South Wall.) ANDREA DEL SARTO. 

The Birth of the f^irgin, 1 5 1 4. FR. 

** He painted the Birth of Our Lady in a composi- 
tion of figures most excellently proportioned and arranged 
with grace in a room where some women, friends, and 
relations, having come to visit the woman in childbed, 
stand round her clad in such habits as were worn in 
those days. Others round the fire wash the new-born 
child, arrange the bandages and do other services ; and 
among them is a child warming himself at the fire, 

^ Francesco AjoUi, born 1492, Master of Music, who taught 
Benvenuto Cellini. He went to France 1530 and had there a 
great reputation. 

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very livings and an old man reposing on a couch most 
naturally ; there are also some women who bring food 
to the woman in bed in a manner most true to life ; 

Thk Birth of the Virgin 
Andrea del Sarto. SS, Annunziata. 

and all these figures , together with some putti who are 
in the air scattering flowers, are in their gestures, their 
draperies, and every other thing, most well thought out. 

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and coloured so harmoniously that the figures seem of 
flesh and the rest rather real than painted.''^ (Vas. v. 15.) 
The fresco is one of Andrea's finest works. The 
woman in profile, advancing towards the bed in orange 
robes, is a portrait of Lucrezia del Fcde ; the other in 
red, of the red-haired woman he painted so often, 
whose portrait is in the Uffizi, No. 1230. They 
served as models also for the women with the child. 
On the mantelpiece is carved the Lily entwined in the 
S, of the SS. Annunziata, and the signature andreas 
FACiEBAT, A • D • M • D • XIII. The story goes that 
Jacopo da Empoli, employed many years after Andrea's 
death in copying the fresco, an old lady coming from 
mass paused to look at his work and, pointing to the 
woman in the foreground, said it was her portrait. 
She was Lucrezia del Fede, wife of Andrea, who 
outlived him thirty-nine years. 

FRANCIABIGIO. The Marriage of the Virgin. 
1513. FR. 

" He was commissioned to faint, in competition with 
Andrea del Sarto, in the Cortile before the Church of 
the Servi, the Marriage of Our Lady, in which is 
clearly seen the great faith that Joseph had, who 
wedding her, shows in his face no less fear than joy. 
, . . In company also with Our Lady he painted some 
women of great charm and with their hair beautifully 
dressed, in which he always took delight, . . . and a 
woman with a child in her arms who goes to her house 
and has struck another child, which seating itself, will 
not stir, and weeps and puts its hand to its face very 
charmingly, . . . Not long after, the frati wishing, in 
honour of a solemn feast, that the scenes of Andrea and 
Francia should be uncovered on the night that Francia 
had completed his, they boldly and presumptuously un- 
covered it, thinking, ignorant as they were in things 

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of art, that Francia would not retouch nor do more to 
the figures. In the morning the news was brought to 
Francia that his and Andrea^s works were uncovered, 
at which he suffered so much grief that he almost died 
of it; and irritated at the presumption of the frati 
who had used him with so little respect, with hasty 
steps he came to the work, and mounting the scaffold- 
ing which was not yet removed, with a little mascnCs 
hammer that was there, he struck out some of the heads 
of the women and spoiled that of the Madonna, and a 
nude who breaks a rod he hammered away almost 
entirely from the wall. 7he frati at the noise came 
running to the place together with some laymen, and 
held his hand that he should not destroy all; and 
though later they wished to give him double payment 
he would never, for the hate he had conceived towards 
them, repair it, and out of respect for him and his 
work, the other painters would not finish it, and thus 
it remains to this day as a record^ (Vas. v. 192.) 

The scene is well composed and dramatic. The 
conception of the theme is characteristic of the school, 
the lovers, in the traditional quattrocento treatment 
richly clad young nobles, here are labourers and 
peasants. The damage done to the Virgin's head 
and the figure of the nude lover, is plainly visible. 
The tale is confirmed by a document, dated 15 15, in 
which the monks urge Franciabigio to repair the 

•^(West Wall.) PONTORMO. The Visitation. 

1515. FR. 

" Jacopo, who was a melancholy and solitary youth, 
placed himself of his own accord with Andrea del Sarto, 
just when he had painted in the Cortile of the Servi 
the scenes of S. Filippo, which pleased Jacopo infinitely, 
as did all the other works, the style, and drawing of 

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Andrea^ (Vas. vi. 247.) " Maestro Jacofo^ frate 
of the Servi, wished at any cost to make him complete 
the work in the Cortile of the Servi, thinking that, 
competing with the other Masters who had painted 
there, he ought to do something of extraordinary beauty, 
Jacopo, therefore, set to work and painted, not less for 
glory and honour than for gain, the scene of the Visita- 
tion of the Madonna, in a style more bright and gay 
than was his wont, . . . The women, children, youths, 
and old men are painted so harmoniously and with such 
fusion of colour that it is a marvel; the flesh tints of 
a child seated upon some steps, as well as those of the 
other figures, are such that it is impossible to do better 
in fresco nor with sweeter softness. . . . Jacopo com- 
pleted this work in 15 16 and received in payment no 
more than 16 scudiP (Vas. vi. 257.) 

In the books of the Convent is entered that from 
April 15 1 5 to June 15 16, Pontormo received for the 
fresco 73 lire. 

Before an apse S. Elizabeth salutes the Virgin. 
Right and left are figures architectonically grouped, 
showing the strong influence of Fra Bartolommeo. 
The best figures are those of a woman with the 
elongated face and round eyes characteristic of 
Pontormo, seated on the steps in the foreground, and 
the charming figure of the nude child mentioned by 
Vasari. It is one of the earliest works of Pontormo, 
painted at the age of twenty-one. It has been much 
restored in the last century. 

ROSSO FIORENTINO. The Assumption of the 
Virgin, 15 13. fr. 

" He painted in the Cortile of the Servi . . . the 
Assumption of Our Lady, in which he painted a heaven 
of Angels, all nude children, who dance around Our 
Lady . . . in most graceful manner circling in the 

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air. And had the colour been of that maturity of art 
to which he attained later, as in size and good drawing 
it equalled the others so much would it have excelled 
them. He fainted there the Afostles with heavy and 
too abundant draperies, but the attitudes and some of 
the faces are of the greatest beauty.''^ (Vas. v. 157.) 

Milanesi draws attention to the fact that most of 
the hands and feet are concealed. Bottari states that 
the head of S. James is a portrait of Francesco Berni, 
painted laughing as he gazes upwards, in allusion to 
his humorous style. Several of the heads have the 
individuality of portraits. The painting is broad and 
bold, an extraordinary achievement for a youth of 
nineteen. It seems, however, from an existing docu- 
ment of the Convent, that the frati were dissatisfied 
with it. It is much damaged and repainted. 

Chapel of the SS. Annunziata 

This chapel was designed by Michelozzo in 1448 at 
the commission of Piero de' Medici. Over the Altar is 
the miraculous painting of the Annunciation exhibited 
only on the feast of the Annunciation. It is attributed 
to Pietro Cavallini, but is so completely repainted as 
to seem modern. Some idea of it may be had from 
the fresco of Poccetti on the north wall of the large 
cloister, and from a copy in the Church of S. Lucia 
de' Magnoli. The Virgin is seated at the end of a 
long bench, the Archangel is at the other end of the 
picture, and as there is no detail between, the com- 
position is poor. The legend goes that the painter, 
feeling himself incapable of presenting the Virgin as 
she should be, left the picture in despair without her 
head, and coming back to work later found it finished 
by miraculous power. 

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(In Tabernacle on the Altar.) ANDREA DEL 
SARTO. Head of Christ, o.w. 

" He painted a head of Christ, now placed by the 
frati of the Servi over the Altar of the Nunziata, so 
beautiful that I for my part know not if it be possible 
for the human intellect to imagine better for the head 
of Christ:' (Vas. v. 27.) 

It was presented to the church by Don Lorenzo 
de' Medici, son of Ferdinand I. 

Left Aisle 


The Trinity with S. Jerome, fr. 

The fresco is to be seen no longer. It was un- 
covered in 1899, but has been again concealed by the 
altar-piece of Alessandro Allori representing the Last 

" In the Servi . . . in the Chapel of S. Girolamo, 
he painted that Saint, meagre and bald, well and care- 
fully drawn, and above, a Trinity with a crucifix, so 
well foreshortened that he deserves great praise for 
having foreshortened in a better and more modern 
manner than others before him. But the painting is 
no more to be seen, the Montaguti family having placed 
a picture over it^ (Vas. ii. 671.) 

The fresco is in Andrea's most realistic and uncom- 
promising style. The head of S. Jerome in particular, 
toothless and ugly, is very powerful. Incredible as it 
may seem, this fine work has been again covered by 
the worthless painting of Allori, and is lost to sight. 

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(4th Altar.) PERUGINO. The Assumption of the 
Virgin. T.W. 

One of his poorest works. Writing of it Vasari 
says that from undertaking too much work Perugino 
had grown to repeat himself, and had become so 
mannered that all his figures were alike, and adds 
that the commissioners were little pleased with his 
altar-piece. He was ordered to paint two, " one 
of which was to face the Choir, the other the body of 
the church. Behind was to he flaced the Deposition 
from the Cross " (now in the Accademia, No. 98, 
begun by Filippino Lippi), " in front the Assumption 
of Our Lady, hut Pietro made it so commonplace that 
the Christ was put in front and the Assumption at the 
side of the Choir. Both have been removed to make way 
for the Tabernacle of the Sacrament, and placed over 
other Altars.''^ (Vas. iii. 585.) 

The painting is certainly dull and mechanical. 
The Virgin stands in a mandorla surrounded by cherubs. 
Four Angels in a row make music above, and two 
others fly on either side. Below are the Apostles. 
It is much blackened by smoke and dirt. 


The Choir with its beautiful dome, one of the finest 
works of Leon Battista Albert!, was built at the 
expense of Lodovico GoDzaga, Marquis of Mantua, 
in 1 45 1. The decoration is modern, dating from 
1857. It was formerly square, and was frescoed by 
Taddeo Gaddi with scenes from the life of the 
Virgin, which were destroyed in Alberti's recon- 
struction. The altar-piece, representing the Madonna 
and Saints, was also by him. (Vas. i. 575.) 

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(6th Chapel. Cappella Guadagni.) BRONZING. 
The Resurrection, o.w. 

" He fainted in a large and very beautiful picture, 
the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, which was placed in 
the Choir of the Church of the Servi, that is to say 
the Annunziata, in the Chapel of Jacopo and Filippo 
Guadagni,''^ (Vas. vii. 600) 

According to Vasari, Orcagna frescoed the Chapel 
of the Cresci (Vas. i. 595). Taddeo Gaddi frescoed 
the Chapel of S. Niccolo with scenes from the life of 
that Saint (Vas. i. 575). Dello painted an altar- 
piece with the dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin 
(Vas. ii. 147). For the Cappella Tedaldi, Pier di 
Cosimo painted the altar-piece of the Immaculate 
Conception, now in the Uffizi, No. 8 (Vas. iv. 137). 

Large Cloister 

The large cloister is frescoed by Poccetti and his 

*(Over Entrance to Church.) ANDREA DEL 
SARTO. ''Madonna del Saccor 1525. 


" He painted in fresco Our Lady, very beautiful, 
seated with the child in her arms, and S. Joseph who, 
leaning against a sack, fixes his eyes upon an open 
hook, so well executed that for drawing, grace, and 
excellence of colour and for life and solidity, he proved 
himself tb have far outstripped all former painters. 
And truly it is so painted that were none to praise it, it 
must impose itself as a most rare and stupendous work.'''' 
(Vas. V. 45.) 

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The praise is perhaps exaggerated, but the com- 
position is graDd. The Virgin, a portiait of Lucrezia 
del Fede, is seated on the steps of a portico, her 
draperies sweeping broadly round her, the Cnild astride 
on her knee. She listens to S. Joseph who, reclining 

Madonna del Sacco 
Andrea del Sarto. SS, Annunziata. 

comfortably against a sack, reads from a book. On 
the pillar is inscribed qvem genvit adoravit an. dom. 
MDxxv. The fresco was ordered by the s^lvcic frate 
Jacopo who commissioned the paintings in the Cortile. 
It was a votive gift made by one of his female 

Cappella di S. Luca 

This chapel, opening out of the cloister, belongs to 
the Fraternity of Painters who in the XV4 century 
transferred their oratory here from S. Maria Nuova. 
It was decorated chiefly at the cost of Fra Angelo 
Montorsoli, the sculptor. 

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(Left Wall.) PONTORMO. Madonna and 
Saints, FR. 

Painted for the Church of S. Raffaello, no longer in 
existence, and removed here not many years ago. 

" He fainted in a chafel in the Church of S, Raffaello, 
behind the Arcivescovado of Florence, in fresco, Our 
Lady with the child in her arms, between S. Michel- 
agnolo, S, Lucia, and two other kneeling Saints.^^ 
(Vas. vi. 256.) 

It shows the strong influence of Andrea del Sarto. 
The Virgin is seated with the Child astride on her 
knee, S. Catherine gazing rapturously towards her, 
and an old Saint kneeling in the foreground. Right, 
stands the Archangel Michael with the scales ; left, 
S. Lucia raising high up the tray on which are her 
eyes. Pontormo was buried in the chapel. 


The Church of S. Ansano a Fiesole dates from the 
X century. It is hung with pictures and fragments of 
altar-pieces mostly of the XIV century, collected by 
the Canonico Angelo Maria Bandini, and bequeathed 
by him to the town of Fiesole. The paintings are not 
numbered. The most important are four panels 
formerly attributed to Botticelli, now to Jacopo del 
Sellajo, representing the Triumphs of Time, of 
Chastity, of Love, and of the Church, probably panels 
of a cassone. 

(Over Entrance.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

The Coronation of the Virgin, 1 373. T.w. 

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The Triumph of Time. t.w. 

On a car drawn by two does, two winged putti hold 
the disc of a clock, and beneath them are a black and 
white dog symbolising day and night. HoTering 
above the car is Time, winged, and holding the hour- 
glass, and around stand people of every age and con- 
dition, among ruins of ancient buildings. In the 
background is a beautiful blue sea. 

*JACOPO DEL SELLAJO. The Triumph of 
Chastity, t.w. 

On a car drawn by a unicorn stands Chastity, 
with Love bound before her, whom four women 
atuck. One breaks his bow, another plucks the 
feathers from his wings, a third tears his bandage. A 
maiden precedes the car, holding a large banner on 
which is the ermine, emblem of chastity. The 
Vestal Tuccia, bearing water in a sieve, is on one side 
of the car. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The Nativity, t.w. 
Predella scene. 


Crucifixion. T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Two Saints , t.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Crucifixion. 

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Calvary, o.w. 

MoDochrome. Its pendant is on the opposite wall. 
FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. An Evangelist. 


SIENESE SCH. XIV CENT. The Crucifixion. 


FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna and 
Saints. T.W. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna and 
Saints. T.W. 

Enthroned with Angels, t.w. 

Formerly attributed to Era Angelico. 

Saints. T.W. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Madonna En- 
throned. T.W. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Four Saints, t.w. 
FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Annunciation. 


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FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Four Heads of 
Angels. T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. S. Bartholomew. 



(Behind Altar.) COSIMO ROSSELLI. TIu 

Coronation of the Firgin. T.w. 

A crowded composition, resembling the altar-piece of 
the same subject in the Uffizi, No. 63. 

On this wall are several fragments of altar-pieces 
completely repainted. Right and left of the Altar are 
fragments of altar-pieces of the Florentine School of 
the XIV century, of which the most important are 
a Bishop and kneeling Saints, S. Bartholomew, two 
panels of Angels exorcising demons. Above one is 
the Procession of the Magi, above the other the Pre- 
sentation in the Temple, and two predella scenes re- 
presenting the Pieta. 


The Triumph of Faith, t.w. 

On a car drawn by the four Evangelists in their 
symbolic forms, are Faith, Hope, and Charity, and 
above is seated Christ, surrounded by Angels, with 
the Globe beneath His feet. Around the car is a 
crowd of Saints. 

of Love. T.w, 

On a car drawn by four prancing white horses is a 
flaming brazier, on which stands Love shooting arrows. 

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Below are an old man, a knight, and a lady. The car 
is followed by many people of every age and condition. 

Small Figures of Saints, T.W. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Two Saints. T.W. 

Calvary, o.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Madonna and 
Saints, T.W. 

(Painter unknown.) Madonna^ with kneeling 

Donor. T.w. 

An interesting painting. The Virgin is in gold robes 
against a gold background. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Tabernacle, with 
the Crucifixion and the Adoration of the 
Magi, T.W. 

fixion, T.W. 

Set between two Saints of the Florentine School, XIV 
century. Entirely repainted. 

SCH. OF NERI DI BICCI. Madonna adoring 
the Christ Child, T.w. 

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FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Almighty 
holding the Crucifix, t.w. 



Completely repainted. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Last Supper 
and the Crucifixion. T.w. 

Formerly attributed to Era Angelico. 
FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Four Saints, t.w. 
FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Crucifixion. 


FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Two Saints, t.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. A Saint, t.w. 

In the sacristy are several fragments of XIV century 


The Convent of S. Apollonia was founded in 1339 
by Piero de' Buonarroti, of the family of Michelangelo. 
The building is now converted into a military store- 
house, and only the refectory is accessible. Here are 
frescoes by Andrea dal Castagno, and in the preceding 
room some paintings from suppressed churches. 

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First Room 
SCH. OF FRA ANGELICO. The Deposition. 


SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. The Crucifixion, 
with the Virgin and S, Jerome, r.w. 
Attributed to the school of Andrea dal Castagno. 

SCH. OF GHIRLANDAIO. The Adoration of 
the Magi, T.W. 

Much repainted. From the Badia a Settimo. 

NERI DI BICCI. The Nativity, r.w. 

A varied copy of the painting by Fra Filippo in the 
Accademia, No. 237, with a similar attempt at a 
night effect. The Virgin kneels in a pine wood 
before the Child, who lies on the flowered grass at her 
feet. Left is the Child Baptist, and farther back 
S. Bernard praying behind some rocks. The picture 
is surrounded by a frame of painted leaves and fruits. 

SCH. OF NERI DI BICCI. The Crucifixion. 
From the Monastero delle Murati. 

SCH. OF GHIRLANDAIO. The Entombment, 


Much repainted. From the Badia a Settimo. 

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SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Justice, t.w. 

A good painting, evidently inspired by the Merca- 
tanzia Virtues. The figure in dark green-blue robes 
bordered with gold, and red mantle, is seated holding 
the sword and scales. Above are two shields, with 
the Cross and Lily of the Republic. Below, the Cup 
of the Guild of Vintners, for whose palace it was 


Deposition, t.w. 
From the Badia a Settimo. 

NERI DI BICCI. The Coronation of the Virgin. 

1472! T.w. 
From the- Badia a Ruoti. Mentioned in his 
Ricords (fols. 163 and 177). 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. S, Ivo, Advocate of 
Widows and Orphans. T.w. 

giving her Girdle to S. Thomas. T.W. 
To the right kneels S. Francis. Entirely repainted. 


AbovCy The Crucifxiony The Entombmenty and 

The Resurrection, fr. 

Not mentioned by Vasari. The Last Supper is 
entirely repainted, and with so little judgment that it 




has almost lost its original character. The frescoes 
above, though much damaged, are in better condition, 
being less repainted. The three scenes take place in 
the same landscape. The Christ on the Cross is a 
characteristic figure, with the realism and power 
peculiar to Andrea, Right and left fly three Angels. 
Below are groups of figures, two of those to the right 
being nearly effaced. The Magdalen is much dam- 
aged. The woman seated on the ground stopping 
her ears is a characteristic figure. On the left two 
other women support the fainting Virgin. 

The Entombment is much damaged, the figures at 
the back being nearly effaced. In front stands the 
Evangelist, a grand figure recalling Signorelli. 

The Resurrection recalls the painting of the same 
subject in Borgo S. Sepolcro, by Pier dei Franceschi, 
who was evidently influenced by it. 

of Celebrated Personages, FR. 

Painted at the commission of Pandolfo Pandolphini 
for his villa at Legnaia, now reduced to a farmhouse, 
and belonging to the Marchese Rinuccini. They are 
twice mentioned by Vasari. 

" At Legnaia he fainted for Pandolfo Pandolfini in 
a room, many notable personages." (Vas. ii. 670.) 
" He painted in the house of the Carducci, now of the 
Pandolfini, some famous men, in fart imaginary por- 
traits^ in fart fortrayed from life. Among which are 
Filiffo Sfano degli Scolari, Dante^ Petrarca, Boccaccio, 
and othersP (Vas. ii. 680.) 

The frescoes were sold by the Pandolfini to the 
Government, and transferred to canvas. They were 
first placed in the Bargello, and were removed here in 
1 89 1. Albertini mentions them as follows: ''^The 
beautiful halls of Pandolfo Pandolphini at Legnafa, 

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fainted by Andreino, with Sibyls and famous Floren^ 
tines.'* All four walls of the hall were frescoed with 
figures, but only one remained. Milanesi saw them 
before they were removed, and describes the decora- 
tion of the wall. Above the figures ran a frieze of 
putti holding garlands of bay, much damaged. 

**I Filippo Sco/ariy called Pippo Spano, 

Condottiere General of the Florentine forces. In- 

THEVCRORVM. A superb figure in 
armour, the finest of Andrea's 
existing works, which had much 
influence on Antonio Pollaiuolo 
and Signorelli. It recalls the 
S. George of Donatello, executed 
for Or S. Michele, now in the 
Bargello. The form is well 
modelled and very supple beneath 
the armour. Its superiority to 
the rest of the figures is probably 
due to its having been painted 
Pippo Spang ^^^^ ^*^^» whereas they must have 
Andrea dal Castagno. ^^n imaginary or copied from 
S, Apollonia. Other portraits. 

*2 Fartnata degli JJberti. 

Chief of the Ghibelline faction. In red cap and 
tunic over armour ; a noble figure, treated with great 
breadth. Inscribed : dominvs farinata de vbertis 

SVE PATRIE liberator. 

*3 Niccolb Acciaiuolo. 

Grand Seneschal of the kingdom of Naples, who 
founded the Certosa di Val d'Ema. In a long blue 

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and white tunic over armour, well posed and broadly 
treated. Inscribed: magnvs thetrarcha de accia- 


4 The Cumaan Sibyl, 

In red robes shot with blue, pointing upwards, pro- 
phesying the coming of Christ. Andrea's female 
figures are Jess fine than his male, his interests being 
chiefly in energy and force. Inscribed : sibilla 


5 Thorny ris^ Queen of the Massageta, 

With a long fair plait of hair over her shoulder, hold- 
ing a spear. Inscribed : thomir tartara vindicavit 


6 Dante. 

In long red robes, and red velvet cap bordered with 
fur. Inscribed: dantes de alegieris florentinvs. 

7 Petrarch. 

In long red robes, with green hood. Inscribed: 


8 Boccaccio. 

In long blue and white robes, with red hood. In- 

9 Queen Esther. 

This half figure was over the door which separated 
the figures. Inscribed : ester regina gentis sve 






The Villa della Gallina, in the grounds of the Torre 
del Gallo, Arcetri, formerly belonged to the Lamber- 
teschi, who sold it in 1464 to the brothers Jacopo and 
Giovanni Lanfredini. In a room on the ground floor 
were discovered, in 1897, frescoes by Antonio Pol- 
laiuolo, attributed by the owner of the villa to Botti- 

Nude Figures, FR. 

The frescoes are in a state of the utmost ruin, having 
been entirely repainted shortly after their discovery.* 
When they were uncovered from the whitewash, noth- 
ing was visible but the beautiful outlines incised in the 
plaster, and faint traces of colour. They represent a 
dance of five nude figures, male and female, who hold 
garlands high above their heads. The first is a youth 
whose hair is bound by fluttering ribbons. He seems 
to have just leapt into the dance, and holds the garland 
with one hand, balancing his body with the other. 
Next is the beautiful supple figure of a woman, with 
delicate features, laughing mouth, and thick cloud of 
hair. The lower part is cut away by a door. On 
the other side of the door is a youth, who dances 
somewhat in the attitude of the Faun of the Tribuna ; 
also a beautiful figure, with thick curling hair and 
laughing mouth. Next is another female, in repose. 
Her head is completely destroyed, but the rest is 
well preserved, and recalls strongly the Flora in The 
Primavera of Botticelli. The advanced foot is of the 
greatest beauty. Last is a youth seen nearly full front. 
It is the best preserved of the five, and retains traces 
of colour in the hair and flesh. Below are architec- 

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tural designs of arches and windows, with winged 
putti. The construction of the nude is exquisite, the 
movement rhythmic and most graceful, and the frescoes 
rank among the best works of Antonio.^ 


The Badia was founded in 978 by Ugo, Marquis of 
Tuscany, called by Dante **the great Baron," and 
his mother Willa. In 1284 both church and convent 
were enlarged by Arnolfo; but little of his work 
remains, for in 1625 the church was completely 

*(Chapel left of Entrance.) FILIPPINO LIPPI. 
The Vision of S, Bernard, 1480. T.w. 

" He fainted in temfera on a fanel in the Chapel 
of Francesco del Pugliese in the Campora, belonging to 
the monks of the Badia, outside Florence, a S. Bernard 
to whom appears Our Lady with some angels, while he 
writes in a wood; which picture for some things is 
considered admirable, as the rocks, the plants, and 
similar things he painted there. Besides which he 
painted Francesco from life, so well that nothing but 
speech seems lacking. This picture was removed from 
that place during the siege, and placed for safety in 
the Sacristy of the Badia of Florence,''^ (Vas. iii. 463.) 
It was commissioned, not by Francesco del Pugliese, 
but by his son Piero, in 1480, who paid for it 250 
ducats. The convent for which it was painted is 

1 The above notes were made before the frescoes were 
ruined by repaint. 





now the Villa della Campora, outside the Porta 
Romana, part of the church being still in existence, 
and retaining frescoes of the school of Giotto. The 
picture was brought to the Badia in 1529. 

The Saint is seated in a rocky landscape, writing 

Vision of S. Bernard 
Filippino Lippi. Badia. 

his treatise on the Madonna, and before him stands 
the Virgin, surrounded by angels. ,0n the right is 
the portrait of the donor, Piero di Francesco Pugliese. 
The colours are bright and rather hard, but it is one 
of Filippino's best and most sympathetic works. 

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(Gallery opposite Organ Loft.) VASARL The 
Assumption of the Virgin, o.w. 

" For the black monks of the Badia of Florence I am 
fainting a picture which is nearly finished, of the 
Assumption of Our Lady^ with the Apostles larger than 
life, with other figures at the sides, and scenes and 
decorations arranged in modem style around."*^ (Vas. 
vii. 709.) 

Vasari gives several records of the frescoes which 
decorated the original building. According to him 
the choir chapel was frescoed and the picture for the 
High Altar painted by Giotto (Vas. i. 373) ; but as 
this last, now in the Accademia, No. 143, is by 
Lorenzo Monaco, it is probable that the frescoes 
were also by him. He mentions as also by Giotto, 
** in the arch over the door within the churchy three half 
figures^** which in his time were whitewashed over 
(Vas. i. 399). 

Puccio Capanna frescoed the Chapel of S. Gio- 
vanni Evangelista belonging to the Covoni family, 
near the Sacristy. (Vas. i. 403.) 

Buffalmacco ^^ painted in fresco in the Badia of 
Florence, the Chapel of the Giochi and Bastari, near 
the Choir Chapel, which was later conceded to the Bos- 
coli, with scenes of the Passion of Christ.^^ (Vas. i. 


Masaccio " painted in fresco on a pilaster opposite 
one of those that support the arch of the High Altar, 
5. Ivo of Britain, representing him in a niche so that 
the feet are foreshortened to the sight of those below, 
and beneath the Saint he painted widows, orphans, 
and beggars, who are aided by the Saint in their needs,^^ 
(Vas. ii. 290.) 

All these frescoes were destroyed during the re- 
storation. Filippino painted also a S. Jerome, for 

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which he was commissioned by the Ferranti family 
in 1480, of which nothing is known. 

The Cloister 

The Cloister is double, and in the upper part are 
some fine frescoes of the XV century, showing the 
influence of Benozzo Gozzoli, possibly by Lorenzo 
da Viterbo. They represent thirteen scenes from the 
life of S. Benedict, two episodes being comprised in 
each fresco. 

1. S. Benedict rides away from his father's castle 
to pursue his studies in Rome. 

2. He performs his first miracle, mending with the 
sign of the Cross a broken dish. On the left he is 
seen praying, and on the right youths hang the re- 
stored dish on the door of the church. 

3. S. Benedict receives the monastic habit from 
S. Romano. 

4. The Saint, assailed by the temptations of the 
flesh, is seen seated on a rock to the right, and on the 
left has thrown himself naked among thorns. This 
fresco is attributed by Vasari to Bronzino. 

"/« the Badia of Florence of the black monks, he 
fainted in the upper cloister in fresco a scene in the 
life of S. Benedict, where he throws himself naked upon 
the thorns, a very good painting^ (Vas. vii. 594.) 

The fresco is too damaged to admit decisive attri- 
bution, but if not by Bronzino himself, it is of his 

5. S. Benedict, offered a cup of wine by a rival 
monk, Fiorenzo, discovers miraculously that it is 

6. The devil in the shape of an ape seeking to 
distract a young monk from his prayers, S. Benedict 
protects him with his mantle. 

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7. S. Benedict recovers a scythe belonging to a 
youth, which had fallen into the water miraculously 
caused to flow by him. This is a scene of great 
charm, with a beautiful spacious landscape. 

8. S. Benedict sends a young monk to resuscitate 
another who has been drowned while seeking water 
for the convent. The Saint is seated before a gate 
trellised with roses, the young monk kneeling before 
him, and to the left the monk is seen walking on the 
water and resuscitating the body. 

9. The rival Abbot Fiorenzo sends poisoned bread 
to S. Benedict, who throws it to a large raven, with 
orders to carry it away. 

10. The devil, seated on a stone, prevents the 
building of the Church of Monte Cassino, but is 
exorcised by S. Benedict. 

11. S. Benedict resuscitates a monk killed by the 
devil, who throws down the wall of the church he was 
building. On the right, he is seen buried among the 
ruins ; on the left, being restored to life. 

12. Totila, King of the Goths, to test the power 
of the Saint, sends his groom in his own clothes, 
whom the Saint unmasks. 

13. Totila himself pays homage to S. Benedict. 

In the lower Cloister, over the door formerly lead- 
ing to the Refectory, is a half figure of S. Benedict, 
attributed by Vasari to Fra Angelico. 

" In the Badia he fainted over the door of the cloister 
a S, Benedict who makes the sign of silence.^^ (Vas. 

It is too much damaged to permit any decisive 

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Cappella de' Bonzi 

(In the corridor to the right of entrance to church.) 

SCH. OF ORCAGNA. Pentecost, t.w. 

Triptych. A fine painting. Against a gold back- 
ground in the centre panel is the Virgin surrounded 
by six Apostles, and on the wings are the other six, 
three on each side. 


The Badia of Fiesole was the cathedral until 1028, 
when the new church above was built. It still pre- 
serves its ancient Romanesque faqade. From the 
XI century till 1778 it belonged to the Benedictines. 
It is now used as a school. Both church and convent 
were rebuilt by Brunellesco in 1462 at the order of 
Cosimo il Vecchio, who had his rooms in the convent. 
There are no paintings of importance in the church. 


by Angels on the Mount, 1629. FR. 

The painter's masterpiece, a charming work of Cor- 
reggio-like gaiety. In the centre, Christ is seated at 
a table served by four Angels. On either side hurry 
angels and putti carrying all kinds of food. One to 
the right carrying ucceUini has let the plate fall, and 
weeps over the fragments, scolded by another. To 
the left the devil, with clawed feet, slinks away, puttl 
pelting him with stones. It is signed and dated 1629. 

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The Bargello was built originally as the office of the 
Capitano del Popolo, who was formerly housed in the 
Palazzo de' Boscoli. It was begun in 1250. Ac- 
cording to Vasari the design was made by Arnolfo 
(Vas, i. 283). In 1295, having suffered much 
damage from riots, it was restored and fortified. 
Damaged in 1332 by fire, and again by the flooding 
of the Arno, it -was restored in 1346, but the stairway 
in the cortile was not finished till 1367. In 1574 the 
Podesta and Giudici della Ruota transferred their 
habitation to the Palazzo Altafonte, and ceded the 
palace to the Bargello. At this time the prisons 
were enlarged and the great hall divided into cells, 
and the building was reduced to a wretched state of 
decay. Thus it remained till 1854, when it was 
restored, the partitions of the cells were removed, and 
the palace was converted to a museum. In 1874 the 
sculpture of the Renaissance, formerly housed in the 
UfTizi, was brought here. 

On the tower and walls facing the Via Ghibellina 
were formerly painted the portraits of the traitors hung 
from the window. Here, according to Vasari, in 1 343, 
when Walter de Brienne, Duke of Athens, was ex- 
pelled from Florence, Giottino painted him and his fol- 
lowers, " who were Messer Ceritieri Fisdominiy Messer 
Maliadiasse (Meliadusse) his commissioner, and Messer 
Ranieri da San Gimignano, all shamefully crowned 
with the fafer mitres of justice. Around the head of 
the duke were many rapacious animals and other kinds, 
signifying his nature and qualities, and one of his 
counsellors had in his hand the Palace of the Priori of 
the city, and offered it as a disloyal traitor to his 
country ; and beneath each were the arms and insignia 
of iis family, and some inscriptions which now can 

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with difficulty be read from the damage caused by 
time,'*^ (Vas. i. 626.) Not many years ago indistinct 
traces of these frescoes could still be seen on the 

On the wall, Andrea dal Castagno painted the 
traitors of the Pazzi conspiracy. 

" In the year 1478 when by the family of the Pazzi 
and their adherents and other conspirators Giuliano de^ 
Medici was slain in S, Maria del Fiore and Lorenzo 
his brother wounded, it was decided by the Signoria 
that all of the conspirators should, as traitors, be painted 
on the facade of the Palace of the Podesta, wherefore 
this task being offered to Andrea, he, as servitor and 
retainer of the house of the Medici, accepted very 
readily, and setting himself to the work, did it so well 
that it is a marvel, neither can it be said with what 
art and judgement he painted those personages, for the 
most part life size, and hanged by the feet in strange 
attitudes, and all varied and most beautiful. Which 
work, because it pleased the whole city and specially 
those who understood painting, was the reason that 
thenceforth he was called no longer Andrea dal Castagno 
but Andrea degP Impiccati.'^ (Vas. ii. 681.) 

Hall of the Armour 

(Left Wall.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. Madonna 
Enthroned with Saints, FR. 

The fresco is much repainted, but shows traces of 
having been a fine work not unworthy of Giotto 

First Floor. Sala del Podesta 

This hall was originally frescoed by Giotto, as Vasari 
records, but not the least trace remains. 

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"/« the large hall of the Podesta of Florence he 
fainted the Commune robbed by many^ where in the 
figure of a judge with a sceftre in his hand, he portrayed 
him seatedy and over his head he placed the scales for 
the justice administered by him, aided by four Virtues, 
which are. Fortitude with the soul. Prudence with the 
laws. Justice with the weapons, and Temperance with 
the wordsP (Vas. i. 4CX).) 

A ruined and repainted fresco exactly answering 
this description, and possibly a replica of the work, 
is to be seen in the large hall of the Palace of the 
Arte della Lana. 

In the XVI century the hall was converted into 
cells for the prisoners, with numerous partitions, at 
which date the frescoes were destroyed. In it is 
arranged the greater part of the collection of bronzes, 
ivories, paintings, &c., bequeathed to the city by Louis 
Carrand of Lyons, who died in 1888 in Florence. 
The paintings have been lately rearranged, and no 
sequence of numbers is possible. 

36 (Wall Left of Entrance.) MARCELLO 

HOFFERMANS. The Resurrection, o.w. 


Copied from prints of Schongauer. 

Kneeling before David, o.w. 


DEN. Madonna, o.w. 

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27 FLEMISH SCH. XV CENT. Madonna. 

24 FLEMISH SCH. XV CENT. PietL o.w. 

Praying before attacking the Midianites, o.w. 

Tondo. Pendant to No. 23. 

Touth. o.w. 

Signed H. G. A 6ne painting. 

tor Mundiy o.w. 


Diptych with the Crucifixion and the Corona- 
ation of the Virgin. 


" No/i me Tangere,^* t.w. 


The Coronation of the Firgin, T.w. 

Wings of an altar-piece. 

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ham and Sara entertaining the Angels. T.w. 

Small concave lid of a box, probably for the Sacra- 

lation of the Baptist, o.w. 

Small tondo. 


with below Heads of Christ and a Saint, 
Fragments 'of a larger work. 

to Calvary, o.w. 

and Saints, T.w. 

Enthroned with Saints, T.w. 

Right, a Bishop and S. Peter ; left, S. Francis and 
the Baptist. In the pinnacles, the Annunciation, the 
Coronation of the Virgin, and the Madonna giving 
her girdle to S. Thomas. 

6 (Right of Entrance.) GIOVANNI DI 

PAOLO (?) Martyrdom of a Saint, t.w. 

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Profile Portrait of Young G'trL o.w. 

Probably a modern t'orgery. 

12 SIENESE SCH. XV CENT. Hunt of Wild 

Beasts. T.w. 

13 SIENESE SCH. XV CENT. Attack on a 

Castle, T.w. 

16 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The Judgment 
of Paris, T.w. 


15 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna and 

Child Baptist, T.W. 

3 BONSIGNORI(?) Christ and S. Feronica. 

8 SCH. OF GHIRLANDAIO. Profile Par- 
trait of Lady, T.w. 

Bought from the Rosini Coliection, where it was 
called Portrait of Ginevra de^ Bendy and attributed 
to Leonardo. 

CENT. Madonna Enthroned, 

Probably a modem forgery. 

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and Child Baptist between two Angels, o.w. 

A chanming composition. 
20 ALDEGREVER (?) Lucretia. O.w. 

Enthroned with SS. Catherine and Barbara. 


(Unnumbered.) SCH. OF FONTAINE- 
BLEAU. Portrait of Diane de Poitiers as 
Venus, aw. 



31 SCH. OF F. FLORIS. Bacchus and Ariadne. 


32 SCH. OF F. FLORIS. Apollo and Daphne. 



with The Adoration of the Magi and The 
Crucifixion, o.w. 


sentation in the Temple, o.w. 


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nunciation, o.w. 


The Money Changer and his Wife. 1440. 
Inscribed : marinvs me fecit mccccxl. 

angel Michael and 5. Catherine, o.w. 


ofSheba before Solomon, o.w. 

Chapel of the Magdalen 

Id this chapel the prisoners condemned to death passed 
their Jast hours. In 1630 it was divided into two 
stories and the frescoes were whitewashed, the upper 
part serving as a prison, the lower as a storeroom. 
The partition was removed in 1840 during the re- 
storation, and the whitewash was cleaned off, but so 
badly that the frescoes were nearly destroyed. The 
authorship of the paintings is still a matter of dispute. 
Vasari wrote : — 

" Giotto 'portrayed, as may still be seen, in the Chapel 
of the Palace of the Podestd of Florence, Dante Alighieri 
(his contemporary and great friend, no less famous as a 
poet than was Giotto at the same time as a painter . . .) 
and himself, the painter Giotto. In the same Chapel 
is the portrait, likewise by the same hand, of Ser 

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Brunetto Latini, master of Dante, and of Messer Corso 
Donati, great citizen of that time.^^ (Vas. i. 372.) 

Miianesi has devoted many pages in his effort to 
prove that the frescoes are not by Giotto, but his argu- 
ments are inconclusive. Villani records that Giotto 
**pinxit insuper speculorum suffragio semetipsum 
sibique contemporaneum Dantem in tabula altaris 
capelle palatii potestatis^^ and Miianesi cites this as 
a proof that it was the altar-piece of the chapel and 
not the walls which he painted. It is, however, more 
probable that Villani made an error than that two 
portraits of Dante should have been painted, one on 
the altar-piece, one on the wall above. Moreover, 
Gianozzo Manetti, in his Life of Dante, speaks of a 
portrait of him on the walls of the Chapel of the 
Podesta painted by Giotto,^ and Ghiberti also states 
that he painted in the Chapel of the Magdalen. The 
frescoes are unfortunately in too damaged a state 
(being besides completely repainted), to judge of 
much more than the composition. Those on the 
Altar wall are, however, much superior to the rest, 
and such figures as remain have the dignity and 
character of Giotto's own work. 

♦{Altar Wall.) GIOTTO. Paradise, fr. 

Over the window Christ is seated m a mandorJa sur- 
rounded by angels, and below are saints, bishops, frati, 
&c. Beneath them are many personages in contem- 
porary costume, among them, to the right, the famous 
figures of Dante and Giotto. These have been 
entirely repainted, and are out of harmony with the 
rest, which are less worked over. The crowned figure 

1 ** Coeterum eius 'ffigies et in Basilica Sanclae Crucis et in 
cappella Pretoris Urbani^ utroiique in parietibus^ extat: ea forma 
qua cevera in vitafuit a Giotto, quodam optimo eius temporis pictore, 
egregie depict a " 

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in front of Dante is supposed to be a portrait of Robert 
of Anjou, .King of Naples, the Cardinal, of Messer 
Bertrando del Poggetto, Papal Legate of John XXII., 
and Benedict XII. The figure kneeling below is 
supposed to be the Podest^, and that behind Dante, 
with joined hands, Corso Donati, and next him 
Brunetto Latini. In the centre is the stemma of the 
Republic, guarded by two angels leaning on a lance. 
The composition is 6ne, and the fresco seems to be by 
Giotto himself. 

(Below on the Left.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 
5. Jerome in Penitence. 1490. FR. 

Entirely repainted. Beneath is inscribed : svb pro- 


(Below on the Right.) BASTIANO MAIN- 
ARDI. Madonna. 1490. fr. 

Tondo. Inscribed : virgini exoratae pandvlfvs 


(Over Entrance.) SCH. OF GIOTTO (?) Th 

Inferno, FR. 

The freitco is almost indistinguishable, and little re- 
painting has been attempted. 

(Right Wall.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. Scenes 
from the Life of the Magdalen. FR. 

Eight scenes, more or less effaced. Those of which 
the subjects are distinguishable are completely re- 

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painted. As is often the case the life of the Magdalen 
has been confused with that of S. Mary of Egypt. 
On the lower tier: i. 5. Mary of Egypt receives the 
benediction of Bishop Zosimo, 2. The Communication 
of S, Mary of Egypt. 3. The Penitence of 5. Mary 
of Egypt in the Desert. This fresco is nearly effaced. 

4. ^*Noli me tangere.^^ Nearly effaced. On the 
upper tier : i. The Maries at the Sepulchre. 2. Com- 

?letely effaced. 3. The Resurrection of Lazarus. 
ialf of this fresco is effaced. 4. Christ in the House 
of Simon, 

(Left Wall.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. 1337. fr. 

All that are distinguishable are The Miracle of the 
Merchant of Marseilles^ between the windows, 

5. Fenanzio and The Dance of Salome. Inscribed : 


Fidesmano da Varano was Podesta in 1337, that is to 
say, in the very year of Giotto's death, this inscription 
is adduced by Milanesi to prove that the frescoes are 
not by him. It proves, however, nothing as regards 
those on the Alur wall, which alone seem to be by the 
master's own hand. 

(Right Wall.) BYZANTINE SCH. Head of 
Christ, T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna. T.w. 


SCH. OF GIOTTO. Madonna Enthroned, fr. 
Entirely repainted. 

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Sala degli Avori 
SCH, OF GIOTTO. Madonna Enthroned be- 

tiveen S, Jerome and the Evanfrelist. FR. 

Second Floor. Sala I 

(Right of Entrance.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 
Pieta. FR. 


FLOR. SCH. XVI CENT. Madonna, fr. 

Inscribed : bartholomevs • p • de callie seraphinvs 

C • or ANCONA IVDICES rote • • • VT sit mens SANA IN 

(Left of Entrance.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

Madonna Enthroned with Saints. FR. 

Nearly effaced. Removed here from the ground 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Two Fragments of 

Brought from the Convent of 8. Maria Novella in 

Tower Room 

SCH. OF AGNOLO GADDL The Coronation 
of the Virgin. T.w. 

Inscribed : vespvcciis merchator pro anima sva ed 

ESA • • • 




GERMAN SCH. The Martyrdom of S. Catherine. 

Completely repainted. On the back is S. Catherine 
less repainted. 

GERMAN SCH. The Martyrdom of a Saint. 

Completely repainted. On the back an Angel less 

with four Scenes of the Passion, i . *' Ecce 
Homo.^' 2. The Flagellation. 3. The Way 
to Calvary. 4. The Crucifixion. T.w. 

S. BARNABA. (Via S. Zenobi) 

The Church of S. Barnaba was built by the Republic 
in 1309 to commemorate the victory of Campaldino, 
the battle in which Dante took part. It was restored 
and redecorated in 1700, and only a few fragments of 
the original frescoes remain. 

(Left Wall.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. A Pope 
Enthroned and the Archangel Michael, fr. 

Large figures of great dignity, but much repainted* 

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The Bigallo was built between 1352 and 1358 as the 
headquarters of the Confraternity of the Misericordia. 
Later the semi-military order founded by Fra Pietro 
da Verona, known as Peter Martyr, amalgamated 
itself with the Misericordia, and gave the name of 
their former quarters — the Bigallo — to the building. 
The Misericordia removed to its present quarters, 
opposite the Campanile, under Pietro Leopoldo, and 
the Bigallo is now used as the offices of the Foundling 
Hospital. The architect is unknown, but the building 
has been attributed to Andrea Pisano and to Orcagna. 

(Outside on facade facing the Baptistery.) ATT. 
TADDEO GADDL S. Peter Martyr 
distributing the Banners of his Order^ and 
The Miracle of S. Peter Martyr and 
Two Angels, FR. 

Frescoes half effaced, and so much repainted as to 
make attribution impossible. Little of the first 
remains. The second illustrates how, while the' 
Saint was preaching, the devil attempted to seduce 
his hearers, and he by a sign of the cross exorcised 
him and put him to flight in the form of a horse. 

Open Oratory 

In this Oratory, to which access is obtained through 
the door to the right, is a large gilded altar-piece 
with statues of the Madonna and two Angels, and 
below a predella by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. 

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Miser'icordla^ The Nativity^ and The Flight 
into Egypt^ &c, o.'w. 

On the right of the predella is seen the ancient building 
of the Bigallo, to which a dead child is being brought 
by its parents, and the brothers of the Misericordia 
bearing their litter. On the left is the Martyrdom of 
S. Peter Martyr. 

Stanza del Consiglio 

ATT. TO GIOTTINO. Madonna della Miseri- 
cordia, 1342. FR. 

The Misericordia is personified by the colossal figure 
of the Virgin hovering above the city of Florence, 
adored by the Florentines. The chief interest of the 
fresco is that it shows the city as it was before the 
building of the Duomo, the Baptistery being the cathe- 
dral. It was painted in 1342. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Bigallo. fr. 

This fragment of fresco was formerly on the Loggia, 
and was removed to the chapel, and thence to this 
room. It shows the building in its original state. 
Opposite the entrance are twelve small scenes from the 
life of S. Peter Martyr, &c., much damaged. 

Upper Floor 

Two rooms have been turned into a Museum and 
Picture Gallery. 

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The Crucifixion. T.C. 

The figure has the eyes open in conformity with the 
belief that Christ was alive when his side was pierced 
by LonginuSy a belief condemned as heretical in the 
XIII century. The crucifix was painted for the 
Bigallo, as the cock at the foot proves. 

SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Madonna. T.w. 

♦(Second Room.) BERNARDO DADDL 

Tabernacle. 1333. T.w. 

The inside panels are well preserved, but those outside 
have been much repainted. Inside is The Madonna 
Enthroned^ with figures of Saints and Prophets super- 
imposed one on the other on either side. On the 
right wing The Crucifixion, with above, 5. Martin 
bringing Orphans to eat at a Banquet. On the left 
The Nativity, with a similar scene. These two scenes 
of the Saint bringing children to feed at the tables of 
the rich have much charm, and are well adapted to 
plead the cause of the orphan;!. Outside the doors 
are SS. Christopher and Martin with SS. Catherine 
and Margaret above. The Tabernacle is dated 1333. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna, t.w. 
Tondo. A good painting. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna, t.w. 
Tondo. A work of much beauty. 

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SCH. OF AGNOLO GADDI. Fragments of 
an Altar-piece, T.w. 

CASA BUONARROTI. (Via Ghibellina) 

This house was bought by Michelangelo for his nephew 
Leonardo. It was enlarged and decorated by Michel- 
angelo, son of Leonardo, poet and litterateur, called 
// Giovancy to distinguish him from his great-uncle. 
Here the family lived till 1858, when the house and 
its contents were bequeathed to the city by Cosimo 
Buonarroti and converted into a museum. It contains 
several fine paintings, besides sculptures and drawings 
by Michelangelo. 

Sala I 

> PESELLINO. Scenes from the Life of S. Niccolh 
da Bari. T.w. 

A fine painting in splendid condition. It was painted 
as the predella to the Annunciation by Donatelio, 
which was over the Altar of the Cavalcanti in S. 
Croce. Bottari states that it was given to Michel- 
angelo the Younger in exchange for a new one pre- 
sented by him to the chapel. It is mentioned by 
Vasari without comment (Vas. iii. 37). In the first 
scene S. Niccolo in secular dress stands outside a 
house and throws money through the door to three 
daughters of a nobleman, forced by poverty to prosti- 
tution. It is a charming scene with a beautiful bit of 
landscape. In the second the Saint resuscitates three 
youths, who, during the famine, have been killed and 
salted by an innkeeper and served to him for provision. 
The nude figures are admirably drawn and modelled. 
The third represents the Saint appearing in the sky to 

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prevent the martyrdom of two youths, a scene crowded 
with knights and soldiers. The executioner in the 
act of striking off the heads of the youths is drawn 
with the fine anatomy and something of the vigour of 
Antonio PoUaiuolo. 

1 ATT. BUGIARDINI. Portrait of Michel^ 

angelo. o.w. 

2 MARCELLO VENUSTI (called Marcello 

Mantovano, pupil of Peri no del Vaga). 
Portrait of Michelangelo, o.c. 

♦l6 PORDENONE. The Death of Lucretia. 

A fine painting wrongly attributed to Giorgione, but 
showing strong traces of his influence. The faces 
have the individuality of portraits. Lucretia is seen 
fainting in the arms of a bearded man and a youth. 
The latter especially resembles Giorgione's type. 

Sala III 

The decorations of this room are by pupils of Bronzino 
and the Allori. 

27 JACOPO DA EMPOLI. Madonna and 
Saints, FR. 

The design of this large fresco is attributed to Michel- 


Flying Putti supporting Garlands. 

Ceiling paintings. 

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Sala IV 

60 ATT. PONTORMO. Portrait of rutoria 

Oil on a tiJe. The attribution is incorrect. 

(Study of Michelangelo.) FLOR. SCH. XV 
CENT. Reclining Youth, t.w. 

Wrongly attributed to Paolo Uccello. 


The Church of S. Maria del Carmine, the Convent 
of Fra Filippo Lippi, was founded in 1268 by Cione 
di Tifa di Rinieri Vernacci, but the original building, 
with the exception of the Sacristy, part of the Brancacci 
Chapel, and of the outer walls, was entirely destroyed 
by fire in 177 1. The present church was begun the 
same year and finished 1782. 

The Cappella Brancacci, famous for the frescoes of 
Masaccio and Filippino Lippi, was founded by Felice 
Brancacci, a personage of much weight in the republic 
as soldier and statesman. The commission for the 
frescoes was given to Masolino da Panicale in 1422, 
but he, being called shortly after to Hungary, left his 
pupil Masaccio to complete them. According to 
Vasari he had already painted several scenes besides 
the vaulting, but these have perished by fire, and of 
his work only one fresco now remains — The Adam and 
Eve on the right of entrance. Masaccio continued 
the work till his death in 1428, completing the two 
top scenes on either side. The Expulsion from Paradise 
left of entrance, and the whole of the Altar wall. The 

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frescoes remained unfinished till 1484 when they were 
completed by Filippino Lippi. 

These were not the only paintings by Masolino and 
Masaccio in the church, for record exists of a S, Peter 
by Masolino and a 5. Paul by Masaccio, painted near 
the Chapel of the Crucifix on the opposite side, which 
were destroyed in 1675 ^^ri'^g ^^^ construction of the 
Chapel of S. Andrea Corsini. (Vas. ii. 264.) Ac- 
cording to Vasari it was the success of these figures 
which gained them the commission to paint the Chapel 
of the Brancacci. 

" He " (Masolino) " was commissioned to paint the 
Chapel of the Brancacci with the story of S. Peter^ 
part of which he completed with great diligence — the 
vaulting on which are the four Evangelists, and where 
Christ calls Andrew and Peter from their nets, and 
where he weeps the sin of his denial, and near where 
he preaches to convert the populace. He painted there 
the tempestuous shipwreck of the Apostles, and where 
S. Peter heals from sickness his daughter Petronilla, and 
in the same scene, where he and John go to the Temple, 
before the portico of which is that poor cripple who 
asks alms, to whom, unable to give gold or silver, with 
a sign of the Cross he heals him. All the figures are 
executed with much charm and have breadth of style, 
harmony, and mellowness of colour, and solidity and 
power in the drawing. The works were much admired 
for their novelty and for the observation shown in many 
parts that difered completely from the manner of Giotto, 
Which scenes, death overtaking him, he left unfinished.''^ 
(Vas. ii. 265.) 

Vasari mistakes in attributing the Preaching of S. 
Peter and the Healing of Petronilla (or Drusiana) and 
of the Cripple to Masolino, for they are obviously the 
work of Masaccio ; but it seems evident that besides 
the Evangelists in the vaulting he must have painted 
two other frescoes, one of them, like those remaining. 

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combiniDg two scenes — The Calling of SS. Peter and 
Andrew and The Denial of S. Peter^ and The Ship' 
wreck of the Apostles, These were probably above in 
the arches of the walls^ and like the roof must have 
been destroyed in the fire of 1 771. 

Of Masaccio's share in the work Vasari writer: — 
" Returned to Florence he was commissioned to paint 
the Chapel of the Brancacci in the Carmine, Masolino 
da PanicaUy who had begun it, being dead. Before 
setting his hand thereto he painted as a sample of his 
work, the S, Paul which is near the bell-ropes, to show 
what improvement he had made in art,^^ (Vas. ii. 294.) 
This figure Vasari describes at length with much 
praise. It was destroyed with the 5. Peter of Masolino 
during the building of the Chapel of S. Andrea Corsini. 
After this he painted a fresco in the cloister, of which 
mention will be made later, and finally returned to the 
frescoes of the Brancacci Chapel, which he did not 
live to finish. They had an immense success, as they 
deserved. Vasari writes : " All the most celebrated 
sculptors and painters from his time up to ours, by 
practising and studying in that chapel have become 
excellent and learned,^' and he enumerates all the 
principal Florentine artists who learnt their art from 
the figures of Masaccio. In fact no praise could be 
too high for these noble paintings. Masaccio was the 
first who realised in painting the ideals of Giotto, the 
first who studied scientifically the human form and 
its movements. In this he may be considered as the 
pioneer of the realistic school, of which Andrea dal 
Castagno and Antonio Pollaiuolo were the chiefs ; and 
his science in the presentation of the human form and 
in technical matters was combined with an idealism 
and grandeur of conception comparable only to that of 
Piero dei Franceschi. He has left few works, dying 
at the age of twenty-seven, and these are the finest 
which remain. For breadth of brushwork, fine group- 

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ing, and accentuation of the • significant, The Tribute 
Money especially is unrivalled in Florentine art of the 
early XV century. The authorship of the different 
frescoes is a matter of dispute and hundreds of pages 
have been written on the subject. That Masolino 
(whose works were little known before the discovery 
of the frescoes of Castiglione d'Olona) should be con- 
fused with his pupil Masaccio is not so surprising as 
that the work of Filippino, so different in sentiment 
and style and executed sixty years later, should be 
confused with that of Masaccio. Filippino was, how- 
ever, evidently inspired by the work of Masaccio, and 
his frescoes in this chapel have a breadth and nobility 
^ rarely met with in his painting. 
The scenes are as follows : — 

Right Wall 

1 MASOLINO. Adam and Eve. 

2 FILIPPINO LIPPI. The Liberation of S. 


3 MASACCIO. The Raising of Drusiana and SS. 

Peter and John healing the Cripple. 

4 FILIPPINO LIPPL SS. Peter and Paul before 

the Proconsul and the Crucifixion of S, Peter. 

Left Wall 

I MASACCIO. The Expulsion of Adam and 
Eve from Eden, 

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2 FILIPPINO LIPPL S. Pau/ visiting S. Peter 

in Prison, 

3 MASACCIO. The Tribute Money. 


The Raising of the King's Son and S. Peter 

Altar Wall 

1 MASACCIO. S. Peter Baptizing. 

2 MASACCIO. S. Peter giving Alms. 

3 MASACCIO. S. Peter Preaching. 

4 MASACCIO. The Sick healed by the Shadow 

ofS. Peter. 

Taking the scenes in detail. On the right wall : — 

1 MASOLINO. Adam and Eve. 

These are the only figures which may be given to 
Masolino. They have neither the characteristic solid 
modelling nor the fine drawing of Masaccio. 

2 FILIPPINO LIPPL The Liberation of S. 


A fine worky showing the influence of Botticelli, 
especially in the figure of the Angel. 


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♦3 MASACCIO. The Raising of Drusiana and 
SS. Peter and John healing the Cripple. 

The authorship of this is much disputed, some critics 
attributing the Raising of Drusiana to Masolino and 
the rest to Masaccio. Vasari gives the whole to 
Masolino. In my judgment the whole fresco is by 
Masaccio. The scene is divided into two parts. On 
the right, beneath a loggia, Drusiana rises from the bier 

The Raising of Drusiana and SS. Peter and 
John healing a Cripple 

Masaccio. Carmine. 

surrounded by her parents, who raise their hands in 
amazement at the miracle. S. Paul and a disciple 
stand in front. To the left, S. Peter with S. John 
(the latter a beautiful figure with blonde hair, recalling 
the type of Piero dei Franceschi) heals a cripple, who 
stretches his arm towards them. Between the scenes 
walk two charming youths in dainty tunics of green 
brocade and pink. Behind are houses in good per- 

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•'4 FILIPPINO LIPPL SS. Peter and Paul 
before the Proconsul and The Crucifixion of S, 

The masterpiece of Filippino. The figures have a 
dignity lacking in his later work. To the right is 
the Proconsul, whose features seem copied from some 
bust of Nero. Opposite to him is a noble Dantesque 
figure, who appears to be accusing the Apostles of 
defacing an idol which lies on the ground before 
them. The Apostles defend themselves with dramatic 

SS. Peter and Paul before the Proconsul 
AND the Martyrdom of S. Peter 

Filippino Lippi, Carmine. 

gesture, and the faces of the men grouped round the 
Proconsul are expressive. All seem to be portraits, 
but only two have been identified. The old man to 
the right of the Proconsul with grey hair and red cap 
is Antonio Pollaiuolo, as is proved by the resemblance 
to the bust on his tomb in S. Pietro in Vincoli, 
Rome, and the youth near, seen full face with fretful 
expression, strongly resembles the portrait of Filippino 
by himself in the Uffizi. It is, however, very much 
repainted. To the left three executioners pull the 

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reyened body of S. Peter up to the cross with ropes. 
On their right stand three youths in Florentine 
costume, the first of whom, seen in profile, is said to 
be a portrait of Botticelli. On the other side are six 
men whose faces have the individuality of portraits^ 
but they have not been identified. Between the two 
scenes, through an arched door, is a very beautiful 

1 (Left Wall.) MASACCIO. The Expulsion of 

Adam and Eve from Eden, 

The solid modelling of the nude and the dramatic ex- 
pression of Eye, offer a sharp contrast to the figures of 
Masolino opposite. The clumsy shape of the legs is 
probably due to repaint. 

2 FILIPPINO LIPPI. S. Paul visiting S. Peter 

in Prison. 


3 MASACCIO. The Tribute Money. 

A splendid work, treated with great breadth. Not- 
withstanding that three scenes are included, the com- 
position is fine and concentrated. Against a bleak 
mountain landscape with a few seared trees stand the 
Apostles, with Christ in the centre rebuking S. Peter 
for his anger, the others all with indignant expressions 
grouped around. In the foreground is the tax-collector, 
a superbly drawn youth in red tunic and pink hose. 
For correct anatomy, facile technique, and free action, 
this figure might have been painted yesterday. There 
is no sign of effort or of archaism. To the right the 
same figure is repeated in precisely the same attitude 
but full face. In the middle distance to the left S. 
Peter may be seen extracting the money from the fish. 

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" Among the most remarkable is the scene where 
S, Peter to pay the tribute extracts at Chrisfs command 
the money from the body of the fish ; because, besides 
that in one of the Apostles — the last — may be seen his 
ozvn portrait done by himself in a mirror so, well that 
it seems most living ^^ (the figure is the last of the 
group to the right), one sees the boldness of S, Peter 

The Tribute Money 
Masaccio. Carmine. 

in the question and the attention of the Apostles who 
in various attitudes surround Christ, awaiting his 
decision with gestures so animated that they seem really 
alive ; and especially S. Peter, who in the effort to 
extract the money from the body of the fish, has his 
face red from stooping; and also where he pays the 
tribute, in which may be seen his emotion in counting 
the money and the greed of the collector, who looks at it 
in his hand with great delight^ (Vas. ii. 297.) 


The Resuscitation of a Youth and S. Peter 

The whole scene seems to have been composed by 

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Masaccio, but only the figure of S. Peter enthroned to 
have been painted by him. In the King with the 
seated figures on either side, in S. Peter, and in some 
of those to the right his style is visiblt- , but all seem 
to have been painted by Filippino. 

" Masaccio painted also the Resuscitation of the 
King^s Son by SS. Peter and Paul, but it was left un- 
finished by reason of his death and was completed by 
Filippino.^^ (Vas. ii. 298.) " In his early youth 
Filippino completed the Chapel of the Brancacci in the 

The Resuscitation of the King's Son and 
S. Peter Enthroned 

Masaccio and Filippino Lippi. Carmine. 

Carmine of Florence, begun by Masolino, and not 
entirely finished by Masaccio owing to his death. 
Filippo therefore completed it and painted the re- 
mainder of a scene which was lacking, where S. Peter 
and S. Paul resuscitate the nephew of the Emperor ; in 
the face of that nude child he portrayed Francesco 
Granacci, at that time a youth ; and likewise Messer 
Tommaso Soderini, knight ; Piero Guicciardini, father 
of Messer Francesco who wrote the histories ; Piero del 
Pugliese and Luigi Pala the poet.^^ (Vas. iii. 462.) 

These are the four men standing to the left in the 
foreground, but the names seem to be hypothetical. 




In the centre the youth kneels before S. Peter, who 
stretches his hand towards him, S. Paul kneeling 
behind. The youth is on a white cloth on which are 
skullsand cross-bones, the implements of the incantations 
of Simon Magus, who stands behind S. Paul, raising 
his hands in astonishment. Grouped round are people 
in Florentine costume, whose faces have all the in- 
dividuality of portraits. Behind the child a charming 
fair-haired girl bends towards him. To the left, 
seated beneath the projecting roof of a palace, is the 

To the right, S. Peter is enthroned like an image 
against a green curtain, and round htm are three 
Carmelite monks and other figures, some emerging 
from an open door. 

*I (Altar Wall.) MASACCIO. S. Peter 

" In the scene where 5. Peter baptizes is greatly 
admired a nude youth, who shivers among the others, 
benumbed with cold, executed with fine solidity and 
soft manner.^^ (Vas. ii. 298.) 
This fresco is much damaged. 

*2 MASACCIO. SS. Peter and Joh n distributing 

The Apostles are walking down a street of which the 
buildings are in admirable perspective. They are 
surrounded by cripples and beggars, and a dead man 
lies at their feet. S. John, with his noble impersonal 
face, recalls the figures of Piero dei Franceschi, who 
was much influenced by Masaccio. 

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3 MASACCIO. S. John Preaching. 

Attributed by Vasari to Masolino. The Saint stands 
to the left, the people seated round ; and to the right 
are two Carmelite monks, one of whom is half de- 
stroyed by the marble altar-frame. Some critics 
suppose that the scenes continued across the wall, 
and that the frescoes of Masolino mentioned by 
Vasari were destroyed in erecting the altar-frame. 
The four scenes appear, however, to have been com- 
posed to fill the narrow spaces. 

**4 MASACCIO. SS. Peter and John healing the 
Sick with their Shadow. 

This fresco is one of the best of the series. The 
two Apostles walk down a street put into fine per- 
spective. S. John has the impersonal nobility of 
Piero dei Franceschi. Left is a group of beggars 
realistically treated, one — the leper on the ground in 
profile — being of great beauty. 

CENT. Madonna Enthroned. T.w. 

A fine painting set in an XVIII century marble 
frame, generally covered. The Virgin is enthroned 
hieratically against a gold background, and holds the 
Child clothed in red and green. The altar-piece has 
great dignity and decorative value. It is said to have 
been brought from the East before 1268, and that 
before it S. Andrea Corsini used to pray. 


The Sacristy escaped the destruction caused by the 
fire of 1 771, and retains its Gothic form. It was, 

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however, completely restored in 1858, and again in 
1902, when the frescoes in the chapel were discovered 
beneath the whitewash. They are attributed by some 
to Spinello, by others to Jacopo dal Casentino, but 
in their present state of repaint are completely modern. 
Behind the Altar are some traces of frescoes left as 
they were found, from which may be judged how much 
the rest are repainted. They represent scenes from the 
lives of S. Cecilia and her husband Valerian. On the 
right wall are the Baptisms, SS. Tiburzio and 
Valerian led to Martyrdom, the Baptism of Tiburzio, 
8. Cecilia preparing the Martyrs for Death, their 
Martyrdom, the Death of S. Cecilia and her Burial. 
On the left wall S. Cecilia with her Organ, an Angel 
giving Lilies to S. Cecilia and Valerian, S. Cecilia, 
Valerian, and Tiburzio, the Baptism of Valerian by 
Pope Urban, and S. Cecilia giving Alms. 

On the Altar is a Reliquary containing an old 
Byzantine Madonna of the XII or early XIII 

(Right of Entrance.) SIENESE SCH. Madonna 
Enthroned between SS. Nicco/o da Bariy the 
Baptist y S Leonardo^ and Elias. T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XIII CENT. Crucifix, t.w. 

One of the large painted crucifixes abounding in the 
Florentine churches, with a tiny figure of the Magdalen 
kissing the foot. 

(Left of Entrance.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 

The Crucifixion. T.w. 

In a beautiful old frame. 

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(Left of Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 
Madonna, T.w. 

(Over Door left of Altar.) Madonna, fr. 
Much repainted. 


Over the door giving access to the church is part of a 
large ruined fresco by Masaccio, which may be 
identified with that mentioned by Vasari as having 
been pninted before the Brancacci Chapel. 

" He painted in fresco in the cloister in terra verde 
over the door leading to the Convent the dedication of 
the Church as it took place, and he painted there an 
infinite number of citizens in robes and hoods who 
follow the procession ; among whom are Filippo di Ser 
• Brunellesco in sandals, Donatello, Masolino da Panic ale 
his master, Antonio Brancacci who ordered him to 
paint the Chapel, Niccolo da Uzzano, Giovanni di 
Bicci de^ Medici, Bartolommeo Valori . . . Lorenzo 
Ridolfi, at that time ambassador of the Florentine 
Republic in Venice ; and not only did he portray the 
aforesaid gentlemen from life, but also the door of the 
Convent, and the porter with the keys in his handP 
(Vas. ii. 295.) 

This fresco Vasari goes on to praise very highly for 
the perspective of the figures diminishing in the pro- 
cession. It was already destroyed in the time of 
Baldinucci, who deplores its loss. All that now re- 
mains is the faqade of the church, part of a beautiful 
landscape background, and in the middle distance a 
young frate kneeling before a jovial fat monk, whose 
smiling face is excellently modelled, and has the in- 
dividuality of a portrait. Other figures are grouped 

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round, and in the foreground are a ftrw people mounting 
the steps towards the church. The fresco evidently 
continued over the door and on the opposite wall, the 
church forming the centre of the composition. The pro- 
cession winding towards it described by Vasari would 
have been on this side. The fragments are much 
repainted, but the few remaining figures, the landscape, 
and the architecture of the church are worthy of 

Beyond on the same wall is a very much repainted 
fresco representing the Madonna and Saints with a 
knight and a nun kneeling on either side, attributed to 
Giovanni da Milano. 

On the left in the Cancelleria, formerly part of the 
Refectory, U a Cenacolo by Vasari, restored, as the 
inscription tells, in 1801. 


This convent of the Carthusian monks was built in 
1 341 at the expense of Niccolo Acciaiuoli, Grand 
Seneschal of the kingdom of Naples, and dedicated 
to S. Lorenzo. It was intended for educational 
purposes, and provision was made for the maintenance 
of fifty students. The fortifications date from 1369. 
The convent was recently suppressed, and only seven- 
teen monks now remain, at whose death no others will 
be re-elected. Like S. Miniato, the convent and 
church are now public monuments in the hands of the 
State. They contained many interesting and impor- 
tant frescoes and altar-pieces ; but the few that remain 
are so completely and badly repainted as to be almost 
worthless. Artistically, only the frescoes of Pontormo 
and Albertinelli have much value. 

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(Choir.) POCCETTI. Scenes from the Life of S. 
Bruno. 1591-1597. 

Cappella di S. Maria 
SCH. OF ORCAGNI. The Trinity , t.w. 
The best of the repainted pictures in this chapel. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. SS. George and Peter 
Martyr. T.w. 

Completely repainted. 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. Madonna . T.W. 
Completely repainted. 

of Altar-piece^ with two Saints in each. T.W. 
Completely repainted. 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. Madonna. T.w. 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. Madonna, t.w. 

Tondo. Completely repainted. 

In its present state of modern restoration the 
church offers little interest. Vasari records, however, 
that Fra Angelico, Antonio Veneziano, BufFalmacco, 
and Lorenzo Monaco painted frescoes and altar-pieces 
for its decoration. BufFalmacco painted two altar- 
pieces — one for the choir, the other for the subterranean 

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chapel (Vas. i. 506). Antonio Veneziano painted 
the alur-piece for the High Altar, which, in Vasari's 
time, was burnt through the carelessness of the 
sacristan. He painted also a Transfiguration over the 
Altar of the Cappella dellc Reliquie (Vas. i. 21). 
Lorenzo Monaco painted frescoes in the church, which 
were destroyed in 1794 during one of the unfortunate 
restorations (Vas. ii. 21). One of the first works of 
Fra Angelico was, according to Vasari, for the Chapel 
of the Acciaiuoli, a Madonna, with S. Lorenzo, the 
Magdalen, SS. Zanobi and Benedict. He painted 
besides, for the same chapel, the Coronation of the 
Virgin, and a Madonna and Two Saints (Vas. ii. 506). 
Of these pictures nothing is known. 

Large Cloister 

PONTORMO. Frescoes of the Passion. 1522. FR. 

In the angles of the large cloister, which is decorated 
with many heads in glazed terra-cotta by Giovanni 
della Robbia and his assistants, are frescoes by Pon- 
tormo and his pupils, of which Vasari writes at great 
length. He relates that during the plague of 1522, 
Pontormo, wishing to leave the city, accepted the 
invitation of the Prior of the convent to paint the 
frescoes in the cloister. He took with him his pupil 
Bronzino, and the quiet, silence, and solitude of the 
convent suiting his melancholy temperament, he set 
himself to work with pleasure. Not long before he 
had received from Germany some engravings by 
Diirer — among others 7he Great Passion — which he 
thought to imitate in his frescoes, and in so doing 
entirely altered his style, ^^not knowing that the 
Germans and Flemings came to these parts to learn the 
Italian style which he with so much efort sought to 
abandon^' wrote Vasari contemptuously. He de- 
scribes the frescoes minutely, at too great length to 

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quote. To the left of the entrance is Christ before 
Pilate, the only one of the four which seems to be 
entirely by Pontormo's own hand — a fine painting in 
the manner of Andrea del Sarto rather than of Diirer, 
in spite of Vasari's assertion that *^ around Pilate are 
some soldiers so thoroughly German in face and costume^, 
that one would think they were fainted by one from the 
other side of the mountains,^* For the other three 
frescoes it is probable he only gave the design. They 
represent (at right angles to the preceding), the Agony 
in the Garden ; and to the right of entrance, the Way 
to Calvary, in which, according to Vasari, seeing the 
damage done to his work by his imitation of Diirer, 
he returned to his earlier " sweet manner y^ and suc- 
ceeded better than in either of the others, although 
even here the German manner is visible ( Vas. vi. 268). 
The Deposition from the Cross, and the Resurrection, 
in the corners opposite, though tainted with the German 
manner, Vasari praises highly. 

Besides these frescoes, Pontormo painted in the 
church the portrait of a frate of the convent, who was 
120 years old; and in the Prior's room the Nativity 
of Christ ; and for the Foresteria, the Supper at Emmaus 
(Vas. vi. 270). 


ALBERTINELLI. The Crucifixion. 1506. fr. 

A poor work, much repainted. Inscribed : mariotti 


A.D. Mcccccvi MENS. SEPT. Vasari mentions it with 
praise (Vas. iv. 221). 

Besides this, there are several paintings of the school 
of Giotto, of slight interest. 

In a corridor are some windows with fine designs 
by Giovanni da Udine. 

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[Open Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 10-3.] 
(Only the more important of the works are mentioned). 

Room I 

13 SUSTERMANS. Portrait of Maria Mad- 
dalena of Austria, o.c. 

♦14 SUSTERMANS. Portrait of Ferdinando 11. 
One of the best of this master's portraits. 

18 SUSTERMANS. Portrait of Fittoria della 
Rover e, o.c. 

A fine portrait. 

20 SUSTERMANS. Portrait of Cristina of 

Lorraine, o.c. 

A fine portrait. 

21 SUSTERMANS. Portrait of Ferdinando 11, 

A fine portrait. 

Reading, o.c. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Room II 

This room is hung with battle-pieces, among the best 
of which are the following : — 

TOIS). Battle. o.C. 

82 SALVATOR ROSA. Battle, ox. 

Room III 
87 FLEMISH SCH. XV CENT. Madonna. 

Attributed to Hugo van der Goes. Much repainted. 

96 VASARI. Holy Trinity, o.w. 
Painted in the manner of Bronzino. 

97 SCH. OF TITIAN. Venus looking at Herself 

in a Mirror. o.C. 

105 GIULIO ROMANO. The Vtolin Player. 
15 18. o.C. 

Copy of a portrait by RafFaelle in the Sciarra Collec- 
tion, Rome. A fine work of harmonious colour. 
Dated mdxviii. 

122 ATT. PALMA VECCHIO. Madonna, 
with S. Joseph and Zaccharia. o.C. 
A fine copy of the Titian in the Belvedere, Vienna. 

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of Man, o.w. 

A good and characteristic work. 

Room IV 

In this room are collected the masterpieces of the 

185 PONTORMO. Madonna, o.w. 

A charming little painting of brilliant colour. The 
Virgin is seated before a green bush with the Child on 
her arm, and the Baptist playing on the other side. 

Crucifixion, o.w. 

A fine and impressive work of beautiful colour. The 
cross stands alone in a landscape of rich brown, with a 
lake beyond. 

240 SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Madonna, 

A fine work, but much repainted. 

341 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Predella, with 
Four Scenes from the Life of S, Andrea 
Corsini. T.W. 

Attributed to Pesellino. 

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with SS, Bruno, Louis of Toulouse, Catherine, 
and Bernard, T.w. 

413, 414, 411, 412 GIOVANNI SANTI. 

Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Erato, and Calliope, 


These four panels form part of the same series as 
Nos. 408 and 409. The attribution to Giovanni 
Santi, father of Raffaelle, is Morelli's. (Z)iV Galerie 
zu Berlin, p. 207.) 

167 SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Madonna and 
Angels, T.W. 

Tondo. A good school work in the style of the 
** Madonna of the Pomegranate" of the Uffizi, and 
the «* Madonna Enthroned " of the Accademia. The 
Virgin is seated, with the Child kissing her. Two 
angels hold over her head a crown of palms and lilies. 
On either side are two others, with the symbols of 
the Passion. 

160 ALBERTINELLL Holy Family, 151 1. 

Attributed to Fra Bartolommeo. The attribution to 
Albertinelli is Morelli's. 

163 ATT. PONTORMO. Madonna and Child 
Baptist, o.w. 

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. Angels. T.w. 

LIPPI. Madonna and 

Before an alcove 

One of his best easel pictures, 
stands the Virgin 
with the Child in 
her arms, who 
takes roses from a 
dish held by an 
Angel, another 
standing by with 
its draperies full 
of roses. To the 
right three Angels 
kneel, singing from 
a scroll of music. 
In the background, 
through an arch, 
is seen a distant 
sea with snow- 
capped rocks, re- 
calling those of 

Verrocchio and Leonardo. From the arch advances 
the Baptist. The painting is well preserved, and of 
great beauty of colour. 

Madonna and Angels 
Filippino Lippi. Corsifii Gallery. 


gor'ical Figures, T.w. 

Five Alle- 

A beautiful painting, very close to Botticelli, to whom 
it is attributed. The figures are without emblems, 
but are probably intended for Virtues. All five faces 
are similar, and are evidently painted from the same 

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344 and 338 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 
Saints. T.W. 

Fragments of altar-piece. 


176 SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Madonna. 


A charming picture, attributed to Filippino. 

**I57 SIGNORELLL Madonna, with SS. 

Jerome and Ber- 

Madonna and Saints 
S ignore Hi. Corsini Gallery. 

the colours are rich and harmonious. 

nard. o.w. 

One of his finest 
works. The Vir- 
gin, with pale 
yellow hair, is 
seated in a meadow 
in red robes and 
dark green mantle. 
To the right 
kneels S. Bernard, 
bending over the 
Child, a tiny, imp- 
like figure. To the 
left is S. Jerome. 
The painting is 
well preserved, and 

409 and 407 TIMOTEO VITI. Apollo and 
Thalia. T.W. 

These and the six other panels, 408, 410, 411, 412, 
413, 414, were originally in the Palace of Urbino, 

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and were taken to the Barberini Palace, Rome, by 
Urban VIII., from whence they were removed to 
the Corsini Collection. Vasari mentions Afollo and 
Two Muses as being by Timoteo Viti. 

"/n the secret study in the Corte degP Illustrissimi 
of Urbino are an Apollo and two Muses by his hand, 
half nude, of marvellous beauty ^ (Vas. iv. 498.) 

The second Muse is probably one of those attributed 
by Morelli to Giovanni Santi. 

410 and 408 GIOVANNI SANTI. Terpsichore 
and Clio, T.w. 

Part of the same series as the above. 

♦148 RAFFAELLE. Portrait of Giu/io II. 

RafFaelle's original cartoon for the portraits of which 
replicas exist in the Pitti, UfHzi, National Gallery, and 
elsewhere. A splendid drawing in black chalk. It 
belonged to the Dukes of Urbino, and was brought to 
Florence by Vittoria della Revere on her marriage 
with Ferdinando II. It is probable that she gave or 
sold it to the Marchese Bartolommeo Corsini, who 
was Grand Master of the Palace. Its attribution has 
been questioned, but for drawing, modelling, and force 
of expression, this cartoon excels either of the finished 

141 BACCHIACCA. Madonna and Child 
Baptist. O.W. 

A fine painting in the manner of Pontormo. Attri- 
buted to Rosso Fiorentino. The attribution to Bac- 
chiacca is Berenson's. 

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Room V 

200 RAFFAELLO DI CARLI. Madonna and 
Saints, 1502. o.w. 

Attributed by Vasari to RaffaeJJino del Garbo. 

" In the Church of S. &pirito in Florence he fainted 
a fanel with Our Lady, S. leronimo and S. Barto- 
lommeo.^^ (Vas. iv. 237.) 

It was originaJly over the Altar of the Corsini 
Chapel in S. Spirito, and in the time of Bottari was 
in the chapter- house in the small cloister of the con- 
vent. Within an alcove is seated the Madonna, hold- 
ing a lily to the Child. Under arches right and left 
stand two angels, and kneeling in the foreground are 
SS. Bartholomew and Jerome. Inscribed : Raphael 
DE KROLis pixiT A.D. Mcccccii. A fine painting, of 
strong harmonious colour, showing the influence of 
Perugino in the forms. 

Room VI 

241 ANDREA DEL SARTO. Jpol/o and 
Daphne and Narcissus, o.w. 

A scene of small figures, painted in the manner of The 
History of Joseph in the Pitti. 


Christ bearing the Cross, o.w. 

Attributed by Cavalcaselle to Marcello Venusti. 


Portrait of a Goldsmith. T.w. 

The authorship is disputed. Morelli attributed it to 

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" A genuine though much over-cleanei work by Botti- 
celliy resembling the sadly cisfigured portrait of a 
medallist in the Ufflzi.'' (" Italian Painterp,*' i. 86.) 

The painting seems to be by a Florentine, strongly 
influenced by the Flemish school. Neither drawing 
nor modelling is worthy of Botticelli's own hand. 

209 MEMLING. Portrait of Man, o.w. 
A fine portrait, well modelled. 

1208 ANTONIUS MOR(?) Portrait of Man. 

Attributed to Holbein. Much repainted. 

Room VIII 

and Angels, T.w. 

Room IX 
270 GUIDO RENI. Pinahello and Bradaynante, 


Room X 

292 The Burning of Savonarola in the Piazza 
Signoria, o.w. 

The original of the painting in the cell of Savonarola 
in the Convent of S. Marco. 

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88 S. CROCE 


The Church of S. Croce was built from the design 
of Arnolfo in 1294, and was continued after his death 
by Giotto. It was entirely covered with frescoes by 
Giotto and his school, but in 1560 Cosimo I. ordered 
the restoration of the church, during which it under- 
went many changes. The restoration was undertaken 
by Vasari, who removed the trame%%Oy added the ugly 
ahars in the aisles, and whitewashed such frescoes as 
were not destroyed by them. In order to give some 
idea of the masterpieces destroyed, I have mentioned 
later Vasari's own record of the paintings, some frag- 
ments of which have been recently uncovered. 

Right Aisle 

S, Francis, fr. 

A fine work, attributed by Vasari to Andrea dal Cas- 
tagno (Vas. ii. 672). The Baptist shows strong 
traces of his influence, but it resembles more closely 
the figure of the same Saint in Domenico Veneziano's 
altar-piece, now in the Uffizi, No. 1305. 

Cappella Castellani 

STARNINA(?) Scenes from the Lives of S. John 
the Evangelist^ the Baptist^ S, Niccolh da Bariy 
and S. Antonio, 1377. ^^' 

" He painted in the Chapel of the Castellani {com- 
missioned by Michele di Fanniy honourable citizen of 

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that family) many stories of S, Antonio Ahhate in 
fresco^ and also some of S, Niccolo, Bishop ; with so 
much care and in such good fashion that they were the 
cause that he became knozvn as an excellent fainter to 
certain Spaniards then living in Florence for their 
business affairs, and who conducted him to Spain to 
their king, who saw and received him most willingly^ 
(Vas. ii. 6.) 

The attribution to Stamina is disputed, Burckhardt 
giving them to Agnolo Gaddi. The general effect 
is good but the drawing is poor, and the frescoes 
hardly merit much attention in detail, being, besides, 
much repainted. Over the arch outside are two pro- 
phets holding scrolls. In the vaulting, the four Evan- 
gelists and Fathers of the Church. On the right wall, 
scenes from the lives of the Baptist and S. Niccolo da 
Bari. On the left, scenes from the lives of S. John 
the Evangelist and S. Antonio. These last are more 
damaged than the rest. They were painted in 1377. 

(Behind Altar.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. Crucifix. 


Cappella Baroncelli 

Between the Castellani and Baroncelli Chapels is a 
beautiful Gothic tomb, erected in 1327 by the Ban- 
dini-Baroncelli family, in the arch of which is a fine 
half figure of the Madonna of the school of Giotto. 

TADDEO GADDI. Scenes from the Life of the 
Virgin. 1332-1338. FR. 

" In the Chapel of the Baroncelli and Bandini, where 
Giotto had already painted the Altar-piece in tempera, 
he painted by himself on the walls some stories in fresco 

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90 S. CROCK 

of Our Lady, which were considered very beautiful.^^ 
(Vas. i. 572.) 

On the left wall are the Expulsion of Joachim from 
the Temple, the Meeting of Joachim and Anna, the 
Birth of the Virgin, the Presentation in the Temple, 
and the Marriage of the Virgin. In this last, accord- 
ing to Vasari, Taddeo painted the portrait of his 
father, Gaddo. 

" The portrait of Gaddo is by the hand of Taddeo 
his son in the same Church of S. Croce, in the Chapel 
of the Baroncelli, in the Marriage of Our Lady ; and 
near him is Andrea TajiP (Vas. i. 350.) 

They are the two figures, one in blue, one in 
white, to the left, near a woman dressed in blue. 
On either side of the window are the Annunciation, 
the Visitation, the Announcement to the Shepherds, 
the Nativity, Christ appearing to the Disciples, and 
the Adoration of the Magi. On the pilasters, David 
with the head of Goliath, and Joseph. The frescoes 
were commissioned to Taddeo Gaddi by Tano and 
Gherardo BaroncelH in 1332, and were finished 1338. 

(Inner Chapel, Vaulting.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. 
Four Angels, fr. 


Virgin giving her Girdle to S, Thomas, FR. 

A fine work. 

" Domenico made Bastiano " (Mainardi) " paint 
upon his cartoon in S. Croce in the Chapel of the Baron- 
celH and Bandini, Our Lady ascending to heaven, and 
below S. ThomaSf who receives the girdle ; which is a 
fine work in fresco.''^ (Vas. iii. 275.) 

It is the masterpiece of Mainardi. The com- 
position is good, filling the large space admirably. 

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The landscape of the Arno Valley is spacious and 


On the left of the door leading to the Sacristy is 
another fine fresco * by Mainardi, recently uncovered, 
representing an Angel with an aspersorio^ a charming 
figure, so painted that it seems as though it had just 
dipped it in the vase for holy water below, and was 

GERINI. The Way to Calvary^ the Cruci- 
fixioHj the Resurrectiojty and Christ surrounded 
by Saints. FR. 

These large frescoes are so much repainted that nothing 
but the composition remains of the original work. 

(Left Wall.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

Madonna and Saints. T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The Trinity with 
Saints. T.w. 

ATT. MARGARITONE. Crucifix, t.w. 

" Having made in wood a large Crucifix fainted in 
the Greek manner, he " (Margaritone) " sent it to 
Florence to Messer Farinata degli Uberti, most cele- 
brated citizen, because he had, among other admirable 
works, liberated his country from impending ruin and 
feril. This Crucifix is now in S. Croce between the 

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92 S. CROCE 

Chapel of the Peruzzi and that of the GiugnV^ 
(Vas. i. 361.) 

It is of a later date than Margaritone. It was re- 
moved to the Sacristy in 1839. 

Cappella Rinuccini 

GIOVANNI DA MILANO. Scenes from the 

Lives of the Virgin and Magdalen. 1365. 


The frescoes are attributed by Vasari to Taddeo 

" He fainted, his first work with great facility ^ given 
to him by nature rather than acquired by art^ in the 
Church of S, Croce in Florence, in the Chapel of the 
Sacristy, where together with his companions, disciples 
of the dead Giotto, he painted some stories of S, Maria 
Maddalena, with beautiful figures and dresses of that 
time, most beautiful and strange^"^ (Vas. i. 572.) 

The frescoes are entirely repainted. They were 
commissioned to Giovanni da Milano by the Capitani 
of Or S. Michele in 1365. On the right wall, the 
Magdalen at the Feet of Christ, Christ in the House 
of Simon, the Resurrection of Lazarus, Christ ap- 
pearing to the Magdalen, the Miracle of the Merchant 
of Marseilles. The latter illustrates the legend that 
a childless merchant of Marseilles, praying for a son, 
finds, at the instance of the Magdalen, a child by the 
side of its dead mother on a desert coast. On the 
left wall, the Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple, 
the Announcement to Joachim of the Birth of a Child, 
the Birth of the Virgin, the Presentation in the 
Temple, and the Marriage of the Virgin. Over the 
arch are half figures of the Apostles, and on the 

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pilasters, right, SS. Antonio and Francis ; left, SS. 
Andrew and Louis. 


Madonna and Saints, 1 379. T.w. 

A gorgeous Gothic Polyptych. 

(Wall of Entrance.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

Madonna and Saints, T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. S. Bernardino and a 
Bishop. T.w. 

(Inner Room.) In arched recess over Lavabo. 
FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Christ and 
the Samaritan. FR. 

Cappella Medici 

The chapel was built by Michelozzo at the com- 
mission of Cosimo de' Medici. In it are hung several 
paintings, formerly on the altars of the church. 

(Right Wall.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

The Coronation of the Virgin, T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna and Two 
Saints, T.w. 

(Left Wall.) SCH. OF PERUGINO. S. An^ 
tonio, T.w. 



94 S. CROCK 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. The Coronation of the 
Virgin, T.w. 

Painted for the Baroncelli Chapel, and attributed by 
Vasari to Giotto. 

" In the Chapel of the Baroncelli is a 'picture in 
tempera by the hand of Giotto, where is painted with 
much care the Coronation of Our Lady, and a great 
number of small figures, and a choir of Angels, very 
carefully executed. And because on this work is written 
in letters of gold his name and date, the artists who 
consider in what an age Giotto, without any knowledge 
of the ' buona maniera,^ first invented the good style of 
drawing and painting, will be forced to give him the 
highest veneration. "^^ (Vas: i. 374.) 

In spite of this, the painting is not by Giotto. It 
is divided into five panels, with the Coronation of the 
Virgin in the centre, and Prophets, Saints, and Angels 
on either side. In the Predella a Pieta and four 
Saints in medallions. The frame is of the XV 
century, and on it is inscribed in detached letters, 
enclosed in hexagons, opvs magistri iocti. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna. 1409. 


(Over Small Door.) ATT. GHIRLANDAIO. 

The Almighty. FR. 

(Left of Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 

The Presentation in the Temple, Predella. 

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Transept Chapels 

(ist Chapel. Cappclla Velluti.) SCH. OF 
GIOTTO. The Combat of S. Michael 
with the Dragon and the Worship of the 
Golden Calf FR. 

Ruined fragments of the frescoes with which the 
chapel was once covered. On either side of the Altar 
are two nearly effaced figures of Saints. 

(2nd Chapel, formerly Cappella Bellacci, now 
Ricasoli, dedicated to S. Andrea.) 

According to Vasari this chapel was frescoed by 
Taddeo Gaddi. 

" In the same Church he fainted in fresco the Chapel 
of the Bellacci and that of S. Andrea, near one of the 
three by Giotto, where he fainted Jesus Christ calling 
Andrew and Peter from their nets, and the Crucifixion 
of the said Apostles.'* (Vas. i. 573.) 

Of these frescoes no trace remains. 


Scenes from the Life of S, Andrea. FR. 

(3rd Chapel. Cappella Giugni, now Bonaparte.) 

According to Vasari this chapel was frescoed by 

'* In the third Chapel, that of the Giugni, dedicated 
to the Apostles, are painted by the hand of Giotto scenes 
from the martyrdom of many of them,''' (Vas. i. 374.) 

The chapel was presented to the Bonaparte family, 
and is now entirely encased in marble ; so that it is 
probable the frescoes were completely destroyed. 

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96 S. CROCK 

*(4th Chapel. Cappella Peruzzi.) GIOTTO. 
Scenes from the Lives of S. John the Evangelist 
and the Baptist, fr. 

These frescoes were uncovered from the whitewash in 
1 84 1. Little of the original work remains except the 
composition. The restoration was done at a date 
when the style of Giotto was httle known, and the 
faces, draperies, and general handling are not at all in 
the character of the epoch. They are supposed to 
have been executed between 1307 and 131 7. 

" In the Chapel of the Peruzzi family are two scenes 
from the life of S. Giovanni Batista, to whom the Chapel 
is dedicated, where is seen, very vividly painted, the 
dance of Herodias, and the animation of some servants 
who serve at the feast. In the same chapel are two 
marvellous scenes of S. Giovanni Evangelista, where he 
resuscitates Drusiana, and where he is taken up to 
Heaven.''^ (Vas. i. 373.) 

There are three scenes on either side. On the 
right, at the top, S. John the Evangelist is asleep on 
the isle of Patmos, and in the sky are seen his visions 
of the Revelation — Christ armed with a sickle, an 
angel, a dragon, and a child in a cradle. Below is the 
Resuscitation of Drusiana, and below again the Ascen- 
sion of the Saint to heaven. This last is exceedingly 
fine, and not even the repaint has robbed the noble 
figures of the Orientals, bending over the empty tomb, 
and gazing upward at the Saint, of their dignity. 

On the left wall, at the top, is the Expulsion of 
Zacharias from the Temple, and below, the Birth of 
the Baptist, and below again the Feast of Herod and 
the Dance of Salome. For this chapel, according to 
Vasari, Spinello painted the altar-piece, now lost. 
(Vas. i. 680.) 

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**(4th Chapel. Cappella Bardi.) GIOTTO. 
Scenes from the Life of S. Francis, FR. 

" In S, Grace are four chapels fainted by the hand 
of Giotto, three between the Sacristy and the large Ghapel 
and one on the other side. In the first of the three, 
which is that of Messer Ridolfo de* Bardi, in which 

Ti|p Death of S. Francis 
Giotto. S. Croce. 

are the bell-rofes, is the life of S. Francis, for whose 
death a number of Frati show very befittingly the 
emotion of weepingJ^ (Vas. i. 373.) 

The frescoes were probably painted after 13 10 for 
Ridolfo de' Bardi, whose son Giovanni belonged to 
the Franciscan Order. The whitewash was removed 
in 1853, and the restoration was done by an artist 
better acquainted with the style of Giotto than he 
who restored the Cappella Peruzzi, but the frescoes 
are entirely repainted. On the right, at the top, S. 


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Francis presents the rules of his Order to Pope 
Honorius. Below, he undergoes the ordeal by fire 
before the Sultan — a superb composition, in which the 
figures have great beauty and dignity. Below is the 
deathbed of the iSaint and his apparition to the Bishop 
of Assisi, to assure him of the truth of the Stigmata. 
On the lefty at the top, is S. Francis renouncing the 
worldly life and being clothed by the Bishop of Assisi. 

S. Francis before the Sultan 
Giotto, SXroce. 

Below, he appears to S. Antonio while he is preaching 
in the Cathedral of Aries, and below again is the death 
of the Saint. The composition of this scene is ex- 
ceedingly fine, and has been followed more or less 
faithfully in all subsequent paintings of the subject. 
The choristers at the foot of the bed are of great 
beauty. As in all Giotto's paintings, the figures are 
much better than the surroundings. Solidly modelled, 
admirably posed and grouped, they seem to have been 
painted direct from life, whereas the architecture is 

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conventional and poor. In the vaulting are four 
medallions, with S. Francis in glory and the three 
Virtues peculiar to his Order — Poverty, Obedience, 
and Charity. 

On either side of the ugly modern window are four 

The Confession of S. Francis and his Apparition 

TO THE Bishop of Assisi 

Giotto. S. Croce. 

figures of saints, much repainted, but retaining great 
beauty and dignity. On the right, S. Louis of France 
in crown and royal robes, a very noble figure, and 
S. Elizabeth of Hungary, her lap full of flowers. On 
the left, S. Louis of Toulouse in episcopal robes, and 
S. Clare holding a lily. 


S. Francisy surrounded by twenty-one Scenes from 
his Life, T.w. 
This is one of the oldest paintings in Florence, but is 

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loo S. CROCK 

unfortunately difficult to see in the ill-lighted chapel. 
It was formerly attributed to Cimabue, and is now 
given by some critics to Margaritone of Arezzo. 

(5th Chapel. Choir Chapel, formerly Cappella 
Alberti.) AGNOLO GADDI. Scenes 
from the Legend of the Cross, FR. 

" He fainted for the noble family of the Alberti the 
chief chapel of the Church of S. Croce in fresco, repre- 
senting there all the events in the finding of the Cross, 
and executed the work with much ability, but not much 
draughtsmanship, so that only the colour was excellent. ^^ 
(Vas. i. 637.) 

In spite of this faint praise the frescoes have great 
merit in telling the story, and the compositions were 
followed closely by Piero dei Franceschi in his paint- 
ings of similar subjects in Arezzo. On each wall are 
four scenes. To the right, at the top, Seth plants over 
the body of Adam a branch of the Tree of Life, from 
which the wood of the cross was to be taken. Below, 
the Queen of Sheba, recognising the sacred wood in a 
bridge which has been thrown across a stream for her 
passage, kneels down and worships it. To the right, 
Solomon commands the burial of the wood, which is 
to cause the ruin of the Jews. Next the wood is seen 
floating on a pool of water and is used as the architrave 
for the entrance in the building of the Temple. Below, 
the Empress Helena, having discovered the three planks 
of the Crucifixion, tests the virtue of that on which 
Christ died, by reviving with it a corpse. 

On the left, at the top, the Empress Helena causes 
the cross to be borne in procession to Jerusalem. 
Below, Chosroes, King of Persia, enters and captures 
Jerusalem. Next, Heraclius before the battle dreams 
that an angel appears to him showing him the cross 

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with which he will defeat Chosroes. Below, Chosroes 
is conquered and beheaded. In the middle distance 
of this scene Heraclius is seen trying to enter Jerusalem 
on horseback, but is opposed by an angel, and in his 
shirt, barefooted, bears the Cross within the gates. 
According to Vasari, Agnolo has here painted his own 

" The for trait of Agnolo, fainted by himself^ is seen 
in the Chapel of the Alberti in S. Croce, in the scene 
where Heraclius the Emperor bears the Cross, near a 
door, painted in profile, with a small beards and with a 
red hood on his head, according to the custom of the 
time'' (Vas. i. 646.) 

On the pilasters between the windows are figures of 
saints. On the outside facade have been recently un- 
covered frescoes of the XIII century. Over the arch. 
Two Prophets ; to the right, S. Francis receiving the 
Stigmata ; to the left, the Coronation of the Virgin, on 
the pilasters, figures of Saints. The frescoes of Agnolo 
Gaddi were painted about 1391 at the commission of 
Jacopo degli Alberti, to which family the chapel at 
that time belonged. They have been much repainted. 

(On High Altar.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. Ma- 

donna and Saints, T.w. 

A fine Polyptych in an elaborately painted Gothic 
frame. In the centre is the Virgin with a Saint on 
either side ; on the right, SS. Augustine and Jerome ; 
on the left, SS. Ambrose and Gregory. On the 
Predella iive scenes: The Crucifixion of S. Peter, 
the Way to Calvary, the Triumph of Death, the Mar- 
tyrdom of S. Andrew, and another Martyrdom. The 
original altar-piece, according to Vasari, was painted 
by Ugolino da Siena, but it was sold to an Englishman 
at the beginning of the XIX century. (Vas. i. 454.) 

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102 S. CROCE 

(6th Chapel. Cappella Tosinghi-Spinelli.) 

This is one of the four chapels mentioned by Vasari as 
being frescoed by Giotto. 

" In the fourth, belonging to the Tosinghi and Spinelli, 
and dedicated to the Assumption of Our Lady, Giotto 
fainted the Nativity, the Marriage of the Virgin, the 
Annunciation, and the Adoration of the Magi, and 
where she stretches the Infant Christ to Simeon, which is 
very beautiful, because^ besides the great emotion to be 
seen in that old man who receives Christ, the gesture 
of the Child, who being afraid of him stretches his 
arms and turns all af righted to his mother, could not 
be more touching nor more beautiful. In the Death of 
Our Lady are ten Apostles and a number of Angels 
with torches in their hands, very beautifuV^ (Vas. 

i. 374-) 

The frescoes have perished hopelessly, for the 
chapel, purchased by Mr. Sloane in 1837, was painted 

(7th Chapel, formerly Cappella Pulci-Berardi, 
dedicated to SS. Lorenzo and Stephen.) 

tyrdom of S. Lorenzo and the Judgment and 

Martyrdom of S, Stephen, FR. 

According to Vasari this chapel was frescoed by 
Bernardo Daddi. (Vas. i. 673.) The fragments 
that remain are entirely repainted. 

♦(9th Chapel. Cappella Bardi, dedicated to S. 
Silvestro.) GIOTTINO (?). Scenes from 
the Life of S, Silvestro. FR. 

" He painted in S. Croce in the Chapel of S. Silvestro 
the story of Constantine, with much care, showing 

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very excellent consideration in the action of the figures,''^ 
(Vas. i. 624.) 

Though much repainted the frescoes retain great 
dignity and beauty ; whether by ** Giottino *' or, as 
modern criticism says, by Maso di Banco, they are 
by the best of Giotto's pupils. At the top, the Saint 
baptizes the Emperor Constantine ; below, he revives a 
dead ox ; and below again he slays a dragon, and re- 
suscitates two magicians in the presence of the Emperor. 
The figure of the Bishop in this last is almost worthy 
of Giotto himself. 

♦(Left Wall.) GIOTTINO (?). The Resurrection 
of Andrea de"* Bardi, 1367. FR. 

This fine and impressive painting decorates the arch 
in the Gothic Tomb of Andrea de' Bardi, who died 
1367. He is painted over the sarcophagus as though 
rising ghost-like from it at the sound of the last trump 
blown by angels above. Behind stretches a dreary 

" Behind a marble framework made for the tomb of 
Messer Bettino de^ Bardi (an error, it was Andrea) 
. . . a man of high military rank of that date, Giottino 
fainted from life Messer Bettino armed, who issued 
from the sepulchre on his knees, called by the sound of 
the trumpets of Judgement by two angels who accom- 
pany a Christ in the clouds, very well painted.^^ 
(Vas. i. 624.) 

Though much repainted, the fresco is most im- 

GIOTTINO (?) The Eniombment. FR. 

This fresco is evidently by the same hand, though 
not mentioned by Vasari. In the arch above the 
sarcophagus the dead Christ is borne to the tomb by 

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104 S. CROCE 

the disciples and the holy women, and behind is seen 
the empty cross, against which rests a ladder. The 
figures have the nobility of Giotto's own work. 

On the altar of this chapel was originally a painting 
by Pietro Lorenzetti (Vas. i. 478). 

(Transept Chapel. Cappella Bardi.) 

This chapel was frescoed, according to Vasari, by 
Agnolo Gaddi. 

" In fainting in the Chapel of the Bardi, also in 
fresco and in the same Church, some stories of S, Louis, 
he did much better ^^ (better than the Choir frescoes). 
(Vas. i. 637.) 

They were whitewashed over, and have not yet 
been uncovered. 

Left Aisle 
BRONZING. Pieta. o.w. 


In the right aisle were frescoes by Orcagna. 

" In the midst of the Church of S. Croce on the right, 
on a large wall, he fainted in fresco the same things 
that he fainted in the Camfo Santo of Pisa, in three 
similar scenes . . . executed with better drawing and 
more care than those at Pisa, preserving however almost 
the same manner of invention.''^ (Vas. i. 600.) 

Vasari goes on to describe the paintings at great 
length, but from his description they seem to have re- 
sembled those in the Strozzi Chapel of S. Maria Novella 
rather than the frescoes of the Campo Santo, Pisa. The 
Paradiso and Inferno were full of portraits, among 
which were Clement VI., Dino del Garbo, a noted 

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physician, among the Blest, and Guardi Mati and 
Cecco d'Ascoli, a famous magician, among the 
Damned. The frescoes were on the wall to the 
right of the pulpit. In 1547 there is record of their 
being cleaned, but in constructing the altars they were 
totally destroyed. 

Near the entrance on the right, Domenico Ghir- 
landaio painted the story of S. Paolino. (Vas. iii. 

^55.) ... . ^ 

Across the church, dividing the lay worshippers from 
the frati was a partition, the tramezzoy covered with 
frescoes, of which we have several records. It was 
removed during Vasari's restoration in 1 566, and the 
frescoes have all perished. Stefano Fiorentino, pupil of 
Giotto, " painted on the tramezzo of the Church of S, 
Croce, in the Chapel of the Asini, in fresco, the scene of 
the Martyrdom of S. Mark, where he was torn in pieces, 
with many excellent figures." (Vas. i. 450.) Taddeo 
Gaddi painted " a dead Christ, with the Maries, in 
fresco, which was greatly praised, and below the 
Tramezzo which divides the Church, on the left, above 
the Crucifix of Donatello (now removed to the large 
Bardi Chapel) he painted in fresco a story of S. Fran- 
cesco, of the miracle, when he, appearing in the sky, 
resuscitates a putto that was dead falling from a terrace. 
And in that scene he portrayed Giotto his master, the 
poet Dante, and Guido Cavalcanti ; others say him- 
self:' (Vas. i. 573.) 

Beneath the Annunciation of Donatello, which was 
over the Altar of the Cavalcanti, was originally the 
Predella by Pesellino, now in the Casa Buonarroti 
(see p. 59). (Vas. iii. 37.) 

Beyond the Tomb of Leonardo Aretino was a 
fresco by Giotto. 

" An Annunciation, which has been repainted by 
modem painters with little judgement:^ (Vas. i. 375.) 

On the Altar of the Serristori, where now is the 

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io6 S. CROCE 

Entry of Christ into Jerusalem, begun by Cigoli and 
finished after his death by Biliverti, was formerly a 
picture by Perugino, a Pieta with the Evangelist and 
Virgin, mentioned by Vasari as being in fresco (Vas. 
iii. 577), but by Albertini as being on wood. The 
frame and predella of this Pieta were the work of 
Morto da Feltre (Vas. v. 206). 

In the left aisle, near the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini, 
was a Crucifixion frescoed by Giotto. 

" Beyond the marble Tomb of Carlo Marzuppini of 
Arezzo he painted a Crucifixion^ Our Lady, 5. John^ 
and the Magdalen at the foot of the Cross.^^ (Vas. i, 


Niccolo di Piero Spinello Aretino and Lorenzo di 
Niccolo painted " in the Chapel of the Macchiavelli 
dedicated to S. Philip and S. James, many stories of 
these Saints, of their life and death, and the Altar-piece^ 
of the said Chapel he " (Niccolo Spinello) " executed 
in Arezzo and sent it thither finished in the year 
1400." (Vas. i. 691.) 

The frescoes exist no longer, but the altar-piece, re- 
presenting the Coronation of the Virgin, is in the 
Accademia, No. 129. 

For one of the Altars in the left aisle Bronzino painted 
the large Descent into Limbo, now in the Uffizi, 
No. 1271. It was removed in 1821 as being "con- 
trary to the laws of decency." 

Over the door of the Sacristy Taddeo Gadcli 
" painted the scene of Christ disputing with the doctors 
in the Temple, which was later nearly ruined, when 
Cosimo il Vecchio de^ Medici built the Noviciate, the 
Chapel, and the Lobby before the Sacristy, and had a 
stone cornice placed above the said door,^^ (Vas. i. 573.) 

In the Sacristy were formerly the chests for vest- 
ments, &c., painted by Taddeo Gaddi, and attributed 
by Vasari to Giotto, twenty-two panels of which are 
now in the Accademia, Nos. 404-115 and 11 7-126. 

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" On the cupboards of the Sacristy he fainted scenes 
of small figures of the lives of Christ and of S. Francis J^ 
(Vas. i. 375.) 

There were twenty-six of these panels ; two are in 
the Berlin Gallery, the other two are missing. 

For the Chapter-house Fra Filippo painted the 
Madonna, with SS. Antonio, Francesco, Cosimo, 
and Damiano, now in the Accademia, No. 55. (Vas. 
ii. 615.) In Richa's time it was in the Medici 
Chapel. The Predella was painted by Pesellino, and 
is also in the Accademia, No. 72. The presence of 
his patron saints proves that it was painted for Cosimo 
il Vecchio. 

The Convent 

The convent was built at the same time as the church, 
but little of the building now remains. A large part 
was destroyed in 1422, and the rest has suffered 
often from the flooding of the Arno. The gardens 
and other buildings extended along the Corso de' Tintori 
nearly as far as the river, but these were converted into 
stables by Cosimo I. On the wall facing the Piazza, 
now entirely restored, Bicci di Lorenzo painted 
several frescoes described by Vasari, and attributed by 
him to his father, Lorenzo di Bicci. 

" He painted S. Thomas who feels the wounds of 
Jesus Christ, and near and around him the other 
Apostles, who reverently on their knees behold the act, 
and near the said scene he painted also in fresco a 
S. Christopher, twelve and a half braccia high, a rare 
work, . . . And within the door that is between these 
figures, called the Porta del Martello, he painted a 
Crucifixion with many figures, and on the inside wall 
the Confirmation of the rules of S. Francis given by 
Pope Onorio, and near, the martyrdom of some frati of 
that order who went to preach the faith among the 

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io8 S. CROCK 

Saracens. In the arches and vaulting he painted some 
Kings of France, ftati dedicated to 5. Francis . . . and 
many learned men of that order renowned for their 
dignities — Bishop, Cardinals, and Popes — among whom 
are portrayed from life in two tondi of the vaulting, 
Pope Nicholas IF. and Alexander V. . . ." &c. 
(Vas. ii. 51.) 

These frescoes were commissioned by Tommaso di 
Leonardo Spinelli to Lorenzo di Bicci in 144 1, as the 
inscription cited by Del Migliore records. It ran: 


ANNO DOMINI Mccccxxxxi. (Vas. ii. 649 Miianesi's 
Commentary.) Near it was a fresco of the Virgin 
giving her girdle to S. Thomas, attributed by Vasari 
also to Lorenzo di Bicci (Vas. ii. 57), but which 
was by Stefano di Antonio di Vanni, assistant of 
Bicci di Lorenzo. 

None of the frescoes of the fagade remain, but inside 
the cloister are several fragments of painting. Over 
the door a Madonna and Two Angels, and some re- 
mains of scenes of small figures on the walls, and 
other fragments in the vaulting. Vasari states that in 
the cloister Andrea dal Castagno painted the Flagellation 
of Christ, which he describes at length, and with much 
praise for its admirable perspective and the good action 
of the executioners, and relates how it was damaged 
" by the children and other simple people who had 
scratched all the heads and arms of the Jews, as though 
thus they might avenge the injury of Our Lord.''^ 
(Vas. ii. 672.) This Flagellation is mentioned by 
Francesco di Giovanni di Guido Baldovinetti in his 
Memoriale as being by Alesso Baldovinetti. It was 
already destroyed in the time of Baldinucci, who de- 
plores the loss. 

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Refectory ' 

The first door to the right of the cloister gives access 
to the old Refectory, for some years used as a carpet 
manufactory, now turned into the museum of the 
church. On the walls are hung some paintings and 
fragments of frescoes, &c., found in the church and 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. Cenacok, with the Genea- 
logical Tree of the Cross and Scenes from the 
Lives of SS, Francis and Louis, FR. 

These frescoes are attributed by Vasari to Giotto him- 
self. (Vas. i. 375.) By Cavalcaselle they are given 
to Taddeo Gaddi. 


iS. Eustace, 1462. fr. 

This fine fresco was formerly in the Church of 
S. Maria sopr' Arno, destroyed in constructing the 
Lung* Arno Torrigiani. The colossal figure of the 
Saint is very characteristic, strongly built and well 
posed, one of Andrea's finest works. It is surrounded 
by small scenes from his life, and bears the date 1462. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Half figure of the 
Virgin, T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Half figure of the 
Virgin. T.w. 

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no S. CROCK 

FLOR. SCH. Xiy CENT. Seated Christ, t.w. 
A fine figure. 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. The Crucifixion. T.w. 
(Left Wall.) .SCH. OF DUCCIO. Madonna. 

A fine painting. 

SCH. OF DUCCIO. Madonna, fr. 
A large and much ruined painting. 

FLOR. SCH. XIII CENT. The Crucifixion. 

(Entrance Wall.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 
Crucifixion. FR. 

Painted within an arched recess, which was removed 
from the old city wail near the Porta S, Gallo. 

Small Refectory 

of S. Francesco. FR. 

Painted in the vaulted arch. The fresco represents 
the miraculous multiplication of loaves by S. Francis. 
A fine work, but the light is too bad to allow of its 
being appreciated. 

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The Church of S. Domenico dates from 1406. The 
Loggia was added in 1635. It contained several 
works by Fra Angelico, who was a monk of the 
convent, but none now remain except one. 

Right Aisle 

(2nd Chapel. Cappella Guadagni.) LORENZO 
DI CREDL The Baptism, o.w. 

" He painted in the Compagnia dello Scalzo a picture 
with much careP (Vas. iv. 568.) 

At the suppression of the convent of the Scalzo in 
1786, it was brought to S. Domenico to replace the 
painting by Perugino of the Madonna and Saints, now 
in the Tribuna of the Uflfizi. It shows strongly the 
influence of Verrocchio's Baptism in the Accademia. 

Left Aisle 

*(ist Altar.) FRA ANGELICO. Madonna and 
Saints, T.w. 

" He painted in S. Domenico of Fiesole the picture 
of the High Altar, which, perhaps because it was 
damaged^ has been retouched by other masters and 
spoiled. But the predella and the ciborio of the Sacra- 
ment are better preserved; and an infinite number of 
small figures seen in a celestial glory are so beautiful 
that they seem truly of paradise, nor can he who 
approaches gaze enough at them.^^ (Vas. ii. 510.) 

As Vasari says, the picture was originally on the 
High Altar, whence it was removed to the east wall of 
the choir, and a few years ago to its present place. 

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The Virgin is enthroned between the Baptist and 
S. Thomas Aquinas on one side, SS. Domenico and 
Peter Martyr on the other. The repainting men- 
tioned by Vasari was done in 1501 by Lorenzo di 
Credi, by whom is the whole of the landscape. The 
Predella is a copy of the original, which was sold in 
the middle of the last century to the English National 
Gallery. It represents Christ in the midst of Angels 
making music, and surrounded by Patriarchs, Pro- 
phets, and Saints — about 270 figures. The picture is 
in a frame of earlier date, the pilasters of which are 
painted with six saints by Lorenzo Monaco, and 
below, on either side of the Predella, the Virgin, the 
Magdalen, and the two other Maries of the sarte date. 
The Ciborio mentioned by Vasari was also sold. 

(2nd Altar.) GIOVANNI SOGLIANI and 
SANTI DI TITO. The Adoration of the 
MagL o.w. 
Mentioned by Vasari (Vas. v. 124). 


(Back of Altar.) SCH. OF PERUGINO. 

Madonna Enthroned, o.w. 

A fine painting. The Virgin is seated under an arch 
in an open landscape. 

Vasari mentions other altar-pieces painted by Fra 
Angelico for the church. The Annunciation, sold in 
161 1 to the Duke of Lerma for his chapel in the 
Dominican College of Valladolid. (Vas. ii. 510.) 
For the chapel, where now is the Madonna and Saints, 
he painted the Coronation of the Virgin, now in the 
Louvre, which was taken to Paris during the French 

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S. Maria del Fiore 

The Duomo, formerly S. Reparata, was begun by 
Arnolfo in 1298 on the site of the earlier Church of 
S. Salvatore. The name was changed to S. Maria 
del Fiore in 1432. Giotto was appointed architect, 
and after his death in 1336, Francesco Talenti, to 
whom the building as it is now seen is chiefly due. 
The main part was completed in 1407. The dome 
was begun by Brunellesco in 142 1, and the lantern 
was added in 1437. 

Over the north entrance, called the "Porta della 
Mandorla," is a fine mosaic representing the Annun- 
ciation, by Domenico Ghirlandaio, dated 1490. It 
is mentioned with praise by Vasari (Vas. i. 197, and 
iii. 274). The Virgin is seated beneath a portico, 
with the Archangel kneeling before her. Beyond the 
parapet is a garden with cypresses. It is framed in a 
garland of fruits. 

Interior. Wall of Entrance 

(Over Central Door.) ATT. GADDO GADDI. 

The Coronation of the Virgin. Mosaic. 

A fine mosaic, much restored. It is attributed by 
Vasari to Gaddo Gaddi, but seems rather in the 
Byzantine manner. 

" He was commissioned by the Operai of S. Maria 
del Fiore to make in the lunette within the church 
over the principal door, the Coronation of Our Lady, 
wf)ich he executed in mosaic ; which work when finished 
tvas adjudged by all masters^ foreign and Florentine, the 
most beautiful that had ever been seen in Italy, they 


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recognising in it more draughtsmanship, judgement, and 
care, than in all the other mosaics that could be found 
in Italy. ^* (Vas. i. '347.) 

Part of it is restored in oil paint. 

SANTI DI TITO. Angels Adoring , fr.' 

Painted in three arches on either side of the above 

PAOLO UCCELLO. Four Heads of Prophets 
in angles of Clock, fr. 

The clock was originally painted by Paolo Uccello, 
but in adapting it to modern use his painting has been 
destroyed, with the exception of these four heads. 

" He painted in colour the face of the clock over the 
principal entrance within the church, taith four heads 
in the angles painted in fresco.^* (Vas. ii. 212.) 

♦(Over Side Door, left.) PAOLO UCCELLO. 

Monument of Sir John Hawkwood. FR. 

Over the two side doors are large paintings in terra 
verde, imitating marble monuments, of colossal eques- 
trian statues on sarcophagi. They were originally on 
the north wall, and were transferred to canvas and 
removed here in 1841. That to the right represents 
Sir John Hawkwood, the English condottiere, known 
in Italy as Giovanni Aguto. 

" He painted in S, Maria del Fiore, in memory of 
Giovanni Acuto the Englishman, Captain of the 
Florentines, who died in the year 1393, a horse in terra 
verde, very beautiful and of extraordinary size, and 
on it the figure of the said Captain, in chiaroscuro of 
the colour of terra verde, in a picture ten braccia high, 
in the middle of one wall of the church, where he 

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portrayed in perspective a great sarcofhagus, feigning 
that the body was within^ and on it he placed the figure 
armed as a captain on horseback ; which work was and 
is still held to be very beautiful for this sort of painting ; 
and if Paulo had not made the horse move the legs on 
one side only, which horses in nature do not do because 
they would fall {which happened perhaps because he 
was not accustomed to ride, nor experienced in horses 
as he was in other animals), it would be a most perfect 
work, because the perspective of that horse, which is 
very large, is exceedingly fine ; and on the base are 
these letters, pavli vccelli opvs." (Vas. ii. 211.) 

The painting replaced an earlier one by Agnolo 
Gaddi and Pesello, to whom the commission was 
given in 1395 to paint the monument on the north 
wall of the church, between the two doors. This 
fresco being ruined, in 1436 Paolo Uccello received 
the commission to paint another in the same fashion as 
the original. His painting did not give satisfaction, 
and he was ordered to do another; but whether he 
did so or not, and whether this is the work that did 
not please the commissioners or another, is unknown. 
The statue rests on a sarcophagus, which is placed on 
an imitation bracket, decorated with the stemma of the 
General, and inscribed : iohannes acvtvs eqves britan- 


work had much influence on subsequent equestrian 
statues, those of Donatello at Padua and of Verroc- 
chio at Venice showing traces of it. 

*(Over Side Door, right.) ANDREA DAL 
CASTAGNO. Monument of Niccolh da 
Tolentino, 1456. fr. 

Painted in memory of Niccolo de' Maurucci da Tol- 
entino, Captain General of the Florentine forces in 

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I433> who died, probably from poison, prisoner of 
Niccolo Piccinino. 

" He painted in S. Maria del Fiore the figure of 
Niccolo da Tolentino on 

NiccoLd DA Tolentino 
Andrea dal Castagno. Duomo. 

mentioned by him in his Commentario, 

horseback." (Vas. ii. 

Andrea received the 
commission in 1456. 
It 18 a superb figure, full 
of energy, and has the 
plastic quality of sculp- 
ture. Like the Hawk- 
wood of Paolo Uccello, 
it was originally frescoed 
on the north wall, and 
was transferred to canvas 
and placed in its present 
position in 1841. Both 
paintings were restored 
by Lorenzo di Credi in 


The three circular 
windows were designed 
by Ghiberti, and are 


Pillar over 

Right Aisle 

Holy Water Font.) 


S, AntoninOy Arch^ 

bishop of Florence^ Enthroned, o.w. 


Pillar over 

Left Aisle 
Holy Water 

Font.) ATT. 
S. TLanobi Enthroned, 


The Bishop is seated in full episcopals, with two 

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figures representing Charity and Humility holding his 
cope. Crushed beneath his feet are Pride, with gilded 
horns, and Cruelty, sucking the blood of an infant. 
On either side kneel S. Crescenzio and S. Eugenio. 
In the Predella are two scenes from his life. 

(Near Side Entrance.) DOMENICO DI 
MICHELINO. Dante. 1465. T.w. 

This painting was formerly attributed to Orcagna till 
the document of commission to Domenico di Miche- 

Domenico di Michelino. Duoyno. 

lino, pupil of Fra Angelico, was discovered. In spite 
of the somewhat trivial conception, it has much charm. 
The commission was for " a figure in the guise of the 
poet Dante, according to a model furnished by Alesso 
Baldovinetti.*' To this single figure Domenico added 

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at his own fancy the surroundings illustrating the 
Divina Commedia^ and for these additions he received 
extra payment. The figure stands in red Florentine 
robes holding a book, and to the right is the city of 
Florence, in which the Duomo, the Campanile, and 
Palazzo Vecchio are visible. He points to the gate 
of Hell, where figures are seen descending between 
sharp rocks. Behind are the circles of Purgatory 
leading up to the Paradise, symbolised by stars. In 
the collection of Christ Church, Oxford, is a pen 
drawing of the figure, wrongly attributed to Antonio 
PoUaiuolo. It seems too strong to be by Domenico 
himself, and may possibly have been drawn from the 
model furnished by Alesso Baldovinetti mentioned in 
the document. 


The cupola is painted by Vasari with scenes of the 
Last Judgment. It was begun in 1572 at the com- 
mission of Cosimo I., when Vasari was sixty-one. 
He died two years later, leaving it unfinished, and it 
was completed by Federigo Zucchero in 1579. The 
poor design and monstrous figures have the effect of 
dwarfing the cupola to an extraordinary extent. 

The designs of the circular windows are by the 
following masters : The Coronation of the Virgin, by 
Donatello, executed in 1434 in competition with 
Ghiberti (Vas. ii. 402) ; the Ascension and Agony 
in the Garden, by Ghiberti, mentioned by him in his 
Commentario ; and the Adoration of the Magi, by 
Paolo Uccello. 

Sagrestia Vecchia 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Six Panels, with 
busts of Christ and Apostles. T.w. 

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LORENZO DI CREDL The Archangel MichaeL 
1523. o.w. 

Mentioned by Vasari without comment (Vas. iv. 568). 
An efFeminate figure in a long green dress, holding the 
sword and scales, but seeming fitter to hold a distaff. 

Chapels of the Tribuna 
BICCI DI LORENZO. Figures of Saints. 

1440. FR. 

Behind each Altar of the twelve chapels are figures of 
Saints, commissioned to Bicci di Lorenzo in 1440. 
Vasari attributes them to his father, Lorenzo di Bicci 
(Vas. ii. 55). They were entirely repainted in 1840, 
and some of them are quite modern. 

(ist Chapel. North Transept.) BICCI DI 
LORENZO. Monuments of Cardinal Piero 
de* Corsiniy 1422, and of Luigi Marsiliy 
1439. PR- 

" In 5. Maria del Fiore the Operai, by order of the 
public, had painted on the wall in fresco a sarcophagus 
imitating marble, in memory of Cardinal de^ Corsini, 
who is there portrayed. And over it is another like it, 
to the memory of Maestro Luigi Marsili, most cele- 
brated theologian, who went as Ambassador with Messer 
Luigi Guicciardini and Messer Guccio di Cino, most 
honourable knights, to the Duke of Anjou.^^ (Vas. ii. 56.) 
Piero de' Corsini died at Avignon in 1405, but the 
monument was not painted till 1422. That of Mar- 
sili was executed 1439 They were originally frescoed 
on the south wall, opposite thosd of Paolo Uccello 

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and Andrea dal Castagno, and were transferred to 
canvas and removed here in 1841. The two monu- 
ments are almost similar. On each the body lies on 
the sarcophagus, on which angels support the stemmi^ 
in the style of Donatello and his pupils. The sarco- 
phagi rest on feigned brackets carved with the figures 
of Faith, Hope, and Charity. 


The Cathedral of Fiesole, dedicated to S. Romolo, 
was built in 1028 and replaced the earlier church, now 
the Badia. It has suffered many changes and was 
completely restored in 1885. 

(On Pillar right of Choir.) SCH.OF PERUGINO. 

S, Sebastian, 

In oil, imitating fresco. 


(High Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

Madonna and Saints. T.W. 

Triptych. In the centre is the Virgin enthroned with 
two Angels. Right, SS. Romolo and Donato. 
Left, SS. Peter and Alexander. 

(1st Chapel, right. Cappella Salutati.) SCH. OF 

In the vaulting the Four Evangelists. On either side 
of the window the Baptist and S. Leonardo. Com- 
pletely repainted. 

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S. EGIDIO 121 

(2nd Chapel, right.) SCH. OF GHIRLANDAIO. 

S. Romolo and four Saints. T.w. 

Inscribed: s. romvlvs eps fesvlanvs cvm svis sociis 


FLOR. SCH. XVI CENT. Scenes from the Life 
of S Romolo and his Martyrdom, o. w. 


The Hospital of S. Maria Nuova was founded about 
1285 by Folco Portinari, father of Beatrice, it|is said 
at the request of Madonna Tessa, the family nurse, 
whose sepulchral figure, dated 1288, is within the 
entrance. The Loggia was added in the XVI 
century. Ic is now the principal hospital of Tuscany, 
the Convent of S. Maria degli Angeli being incorpor- 
ated with it. The collection of pictures and sculpture, 
formerly housed in the building opposite, were removed 
a few years ago, the paintings to the Uffizi, the 
sculpture to the Bargello. 

The Church of S. Egidio annexed to it was built 
from a design by Lorenzo di Bicci in 141 8. It 
contains no paintings of interest. 

(On Facade,) LORENZO DI BICCI (?) Tlu 
Consecration of the Church by Pope Martin V, 
and Martin V. confirming the privileges of the 
Hospital to the Spedalingo Michele da Panxano. 
" The which consecration Lorenzo then painted as 
Set Michele wished on the facade of that church, 

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122 S. FELICE 

, portraying there the fofe and some cardinals^ which 
work, as a new and beautiful things was then much 
fraisedP (Vas. ii. 55.) 

The frescoes are too repainted to allow of any 
definite attribution. The first is interesting as showing 
the old facade of the Hospital before the Loggia was 
added, with the Coronation of the Virgin still over the 
door of the church and a Pieta, which looks like a 
Delia Robbia, over the side entrance. The second 
shows the cloister. 

(Inner Cloister.) ALESSANDRO ALLORI. 

Christ and the Samaritan, fr. 


The Church of S. Felice was already existing in the 
XI century. In 1250 it was given to the monks of 
Nonantola, and in 141 3 to the Camaldolensi. In 1557 
it was ceded to the nuns of S. Peter Martyr, whose 
convent was suppressed in 1808. 

Right Aisle 

(ist Altar.) SCH. OF TADDEO GADDI. 

Pieta, FR. 

Fragment of the old decoration much repainted. 


" Madonna del Popolo^ O.W. 

Mentioned by Vasari (Vas. vi. 543). 

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Left Aisle 

*(ist Altar.). SCH. OF BOTTICELLL 5. 
Rocco with SS. Antonio and Catherine of Siena, 

An interesting work, close to the manner of Botticelli. 
Attributed to Pier di Cosimo. In the Predella, S. 
Antonio in Prayer, a scene from the Life of S. Rocco, 
the Martyrdom of S. Catherine, and the Annunciation. 

(Over Pulpit.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. Cruci- 
fixion, T.w. 

One of the numerous colossal painted Crucifixes 
possessed by nearly all the older Florentine churches. 
Above, the Pelican ; on the arms, the Virgin and 
Evangelist. Much repainted. 

*(5th Altar.) NERI DI BICCI. Tabernacle 
with Saints, 1467. T.w. 

Triptych. An interesting and very decorative altar- 
piece, one of the best works of the painter. In the 
centre is the Tabernacle of the Sacrament with the 
Resurrection painted on the door and around Angels 
adoring. Right, S. Giuliano and the Emperor 
Sigismund. Left, S. Augustine and the Baptist. In 
the arches a Pieta and the Archangel and Virgin of 
the Annunciation. On a gold ground. The picture 
is blackened by smoke, but is otherwise well preserved. 
It is mentioned by Neri in his Ricordi as having 
been commissioned in 1467 by Mariotto Lippi, to 
whom the chapel belonged. (Fol. 128.) 

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124 S. F ELICIT A 

and two Saints, fr. 

Fine figures, much repainted. It was formerly in the 
Tympanum over the entrance outside the church, and 
is said to have worked many miracles during the 
plague of 1630. 


5. Felice relieving S, Massimo, 

A fine work. In the foreground lies S. Massimo, 
much foreshortened, and over him bends S. Felice 
feeding him. Above is the Virgin, with Angels 

S. FELICITA. (Via Guicciardini) 

The Church of S. Felicita is one of the oldest in 
Florence, but in its present state dates only from 1736. 
It was under the special protection of the Guicciardini, 
and on the removal of the Grand Dukes to the Pitti 
Palace, became their parish church. Their chapel is 
over the entrance and is connected with the corridor 
between the Pitti and Uffizi. 

Right Aisle 

(ist Chapel. Cappella Ferranti-Capponi.) PON- 
TORMO. Altar-piece and Frescoes. 

" Lodovico di Gino Capponi, who had bought in 
S. Felicita the chapel which the Barbadori had had 
built by F Hippo di Ser Brunellesco, having returned 
from Rome, decided to have all the roof painted and 

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a future with rich decorations ; wherefore having 
taken counsel with Messer Niccolo Fespucci, Knight of 
Rhodes, who was his great friend, the knight being 
also a friend of Jacopo " (Pontormo), " and moreover 
knew the ability and value of that worthy man, said 
and did so much, that Ludovico commissioned the work 
to Puntormo. And he, having raised a hoarding which 
kept the chapel closed for three years, set his hand to 
the work. In the top of the roof he painted God the 
Father J with four Patriarchs round him, very beautiful, 
and in the four tondi of the angles he painted the four 
Evangelists, that is to say, he painted three with his 
own hand and one Bronzino painted entirely alone, . . . 
In the picture is a dead Christ taken down from the 
Cross and home to the Sepulchre, and Our Lady who is 
swooning, and the other Maries. . . . And the four 
Evangelists which are in the tondi of the roof are much 
better, and painted in a different manner. On the wall, 
where is the window, are two figures in fresco, on one 
side the Virgin and on the other the Angel who annun- 
ciates her. . . ." (Vas. vi. 271.) 

In his life of Bronzino Vasari says that he painted 
two of the Evangelists (Vas. vii. 594), but the first 
statement is correct. 

The frescoes of the roof were destroyed when the 
gallery above was constructed for the Grand Dukes. 
The Annunciation on the wall is so completely re- 
painted as to be with difHculty recognised as Pon- 
tormo' s work, but the altar-piece, representing the 
Descent from the Cross, is one of his finest paintings, 
though it has suffered much from cleaning in 1723. 
Three of the Evangelists in the tondi are by Pontormo, 
the fourth by Bronzino. The chapel is badly lighted 
and the paintings are seen with difHculty. 

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126 s. felicitA 

Left Transept 
SCH. OF GIOTTO. The Nativity, fr. 
Part of the old decoration, much repainted. 


The Sacristy dates from 1392, but was rebuilt in 
1476 by some follower of Brunellesco, whose style it 
closely resembles. In it are hung several fine paintings 
formerly in the church. 

(Over Door.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 
Madonna, T.w. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The Adoration of the 
Magi, T.w. 

A fine and decorative work. 
TADDEO GADDI. Madonna and Saints. 


Polyptych. A fine work. *In the centre panel is 
the Virgin, with Angels making music at the foot of 
the throne. Right, 88. Luke and Philip. Left, 8. 
James and the Baptist. In the pinnacles, figures of 

♦NERI DI BICCI. S. Felicita with her Seven 
Sons. 1464. T.w. 

A charming and decorative work, in the painter's best 
manner. In the centre is 8. Felicita enthroned against 
a gold background, with her seven martyred sons 

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standing round her. Beneath each figure the name is 
inscribed: s. qvirillvs. s. embnander. s. petrvs. 


It was formerly in the Cappella de' Nerli and was 
for years attributed to Spinello. Neri states in his 
Ricordi that he was commissioned to paint an 
altar-piece by Francesco ^de' Nerli in 1463, and began 
one which was too large and which he left unfinished^ 
painting this the year following (Fol. 95). The 
Predella is on the Alur in the Chapter-house. 

(Over Altar.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. Cruci- 
fixion, T.w. 

SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Piet^ 1470. t.w. 
An interesting painting. 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. Madonna, t.w. 


The Chapter-house is the oldest part of the building, 
and still retains some of the original frescoes, which 
are attributed to Niccolo di Piero Gerini. In the 
vaulting are eight medallions, completely repainted, 
representing Christ and seven Virtues: Faith, Hope, 
Charity, Prudence, Fortitude, Justice, and Temper- 

(Over Altar.) Crucifixion^ with Saints, 

(On Altar.) NERI DI BICCL The Martyrdom 
of the Seven Sons of S. Fe licit d. T.w. 

Predella to the painting now in the Sacristy. To 
each of the sons during his martyrdom S. Felicita 
appears and consoles him. 

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On the walls are several fragments of XIV century 
frescoes, transferred to canvas, formerly on the walls of 
the church and cloister. The Virgin and Archangel of 
the Annunciation, two fragments of figures of a Saint 
and an Angel, much repainted ; over the door the 
Marriage of S. Catherine, and S. Antonio. 

GALLERIA FERRONI. (ViaFaenza,No.56) 

*The Cenacolo di Foligno is in the Refectory of the 
suppressed Convent of S. Onofrio. It was discovered 

CoNVENTO DI Foligno 
Perugino. Cenacolo. 

in 1845 in the room then used as a stable. The 
authorship is much disputed, though to students of his 
work no doubt exists but that it is a fine work of 
Perugino. The inscription raf • vrb • mdv., which was 
supposed to be legible on the collar of S. Thomas to 
the right, gave rise to the idea that it was painted by 




RafFaellcy a hypothesis strengthened by the fact that 
at the date 1505 Raffaelle was the guest of Taddeo 
Taddei, whose sister was a nun in the convent. The 
letters were, however, quite illegible. The painting 
has every characteristic of Perugino, in the type of face 
and form,vthe spacious landscape, and every detail. 
It has been, however, attributed to Gerino da Pistoja, 
and Cavalcaselle would not accept it as more than 
school work. In spite of restoration the fresco remains 
one of Perugino*s finest works. The Apostles are 
seated on a divan covered with beautiful green em- 
broidery. Outside the parapet of the room is seen 
an arcade of pillars in admirable perspective, stretching 
back against a spacious landscape. In the distance is 
seen Christ praying in Gethsemane. The figures 
have little action, but are well drawn and posed. Of 
all the Cenacoli in Florence this has most decorative 

On the walls are hung drawings and engravings of 
this and other celebrated Cenacoli. 

Galleria Ferroni 

This collection of paintings belonged to the Marchese 
Leopoldo Ferroni, by whom it was bequeathed to the 
State in 1850. It was formerly housed in the Uffizi, 
and was removed here not many years ago. The 
collection contains few paintings of importance. The 
best are the following: — 

63 CARLO DOLCI. The Archangel Gabriel. 

This popular and much copied picture formed part of 
an Annunciation. 

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98 GIULIO ROMANO. Portrait of Lorenzoy 
Duke of Urbino, o.w. 

One of the many copies of a painting supposed to be 
by RafFaelle, one of the best of which is in the 
Musee of Montpellier. 

100 "AMICO DI SANDRO." Madonna 
adoring the Christ Child, T.w. 

A charming painting, showing the influence of Botticelli 
and Filippino. 


(Via S. Gallo) 

The Church of S. Giovanni dei Cavalieri was founded 
in 1 32 1, and was originally dedicated to S. Maria 
Maddalena. In 1552 it was ceded by Cosimo I. to the 
nuns of S. John of Jerusalem, who had been ejected from 
their convent outside the Porta Romana during the 
siege. Under them it underwent complete restoration, 
and the name was changed to that of the patron of 
their Order. The convent was suppressed in 1808. 
The church contains several paintings of interest. 

Right Aisle 

*(3rd Altar.) JACOPO DEL SELLAIO(?) 
The Annunciation. T.w. 

A fine and beautiful work, recalling the picture of the 
same subject by the same hand in the Foresteria, 
S. Marco. The Virgin stands before the reading- 

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desk, a beautiful and stately figure to whom the 
Archangel kneels submissively. Through the window 
is seen a charming landscape. The delicate silvery 
colour as well as the type of the face recalls Fra 


(Chapel right of Choir.) NERI DI BICCI. The 
Coronation of the Firgin, T.w. 

In the centre in a circle of light Christ crowns the 
Virgin. Below, round a gold ciborium, kneel four 
Angels with four candlesticks. Above, Angels make 
music, and around are many Saints. A very decorative 
work. In the Predella are a Pieta, the Banquet of 
Herod, and S. Niccolo da Bari throwing Money to 
the Daughters of a Poor Nobleman, with three kneel- 
ing Saints on either side. 


Crucifixion^ with the Evangelist and Firgin, 


(Chapel left of Choir.) FLOR. SCH. EARLY 
XV CENT. The Nativity. T.w. 

In the Predella, the Trinity, the Presentation in the 
Temple, and the Adoration of the Magi. 



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The Hospital of the Innocenti was founded 142 1, and 
was designed by Brunellesco. The old church was 
destroyed and the present building, entered to the left 
of the cloister, dates only from 1786. It contains 
nothing of interest except the painting of Ghirlandaio. 

(Behind High Altar.) DOMENICO GHIR- 
LANDAIO. The Adoration of the Magi. 
1488. T.w. 

" In the Church of the Innocenti he fainted in 
temfera a picture of the Magi, much admired^ in which 
are very beautiful heads with varied: expression and 
features, of youths as well as of old men. And specially 
in the head of Our Lady he has put alt that art could 
give of pure beauty and grace to the Mother of the 
Son of God:' (Vas. iii. 258.) 

The Virgin is seated beneath a portico, beyond 
which stretches a distant landscape, with a broad river 
winding between the hills. Above, four Angels hold 
a scroll of music. Two Kings kneel before her, and 
the third stands by with the courtiers. In the fore- 
ground the Baptist and an old Saint present two kneel- 
ing children covered with sword cuts — ^the Innocenti 
murdered for Christ's sake. In the background to the 
left is seen the murder of the Innocents. Two shep- 
herds watch the Virgin from behind the parapet. On 
the frieze of the building to the right is inscribed 
MCCCCLxxxvui. The painting has been restored, and the 
colours are hard and crude. Some of the faces seem 
to be portraits, that behind the shoulder of the young 
king being the painter himself. 

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Gallery of the Hospital 

In the gallery to the right of the cloister are several 
paintings and sculptures collected from the hospital and 

f. fc ^ 

iK , ' 

e t* * 


The Adoration of the Magi 
Ghirlandaio. Innocenti. 

its dependencies, 
portant : — 

The following are the most im- 

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46 NERI DI BICCI. Coronation of the Virgin. 


73 and 74 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 55. 

Jerome and Catherine, T.W. 

Parts of an altar-piece. In the pinnacles are the 
Virgin and Archangel of the Annunciation. 

75 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Coronation 
of the Virgin. T.w. 

nunciation with SS, Niccolh da Bari and 
Antonio, T.w. 

This picture is completely repainted. 

Predella Scenes, T.w. 


62 ROSSO FIORENTINO. Pietii, Frag- 
ment of fresco. 

*6l PIER DI COSIMO. Madonna and Saints. 

" The Spedalingo of the Innocenti was a great friend 
of Piero, and wishing to have a picture painted for the 

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Chapel of the Pugliese on the left of the entrance of the 
church, he commissioned it to Piero, who completed it 
at his leisure. ^^ (Vas. iv. 140.) 

The Virgin is seated on a throne, holding forward 
the Child, who takes roses offered to him by S. Rosa 
of Viterbo kneeling on the left. In his other hand 
he holds a ring, and to the right kneels S. Catherine, 
her crown and a fragment of her wheel before her. 
Behind are S. John the Evangelist, S. Peter, and six 
other Saints. A fine painting, in Piero's most char- 
acteristic style. It was formerly in the church, and 
was removed at the restoration. 

and AngeL T.w. 

A varied imitation of the painting by Fra FUlippo in 
the Uffizi, No. 1307. 

58 FLOR. SCH. XIII CENT. Madonna and 
Saints, T.w. 

At the end of the hall a large fresco representing the 
Murder of the Innocents, of the XVII century. 


The Church of S. Leonardo was in existence in the 
XIII century as an oratory, belonging to the now 
destroyed Church of S. Piero Scheraggio in Via della 
Ninna. It was restored under Pietro Leopoldo in 
1782, and the Romanesque Ambone, which is its 
chief treasure, was transferred to it from S. Piero 
Scheraggio. In the house of the Canonico adjoining 
are a few paintings formerly in the church. 

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(In the Passage.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

Madonna Enthroned between SS. James and 
Leonardo, t.w. 

(Sala.) NERI DI BICCI. Madonna giving the 
Girdle to S, Thomas, T.w. 

An interesting work. Right are S. Francesco and the 
Baptist ; left, SS. Jerome and Peter. Painted for 
Bernardo Salviati and Madonna India, his sister. 

NERI DI BICCI. Tabernacle with the An- 
nunciation, T.W. 

On either side of the Tabernacle are the Archangel 
and the Virgin with Angels round. Much and badly 

the Archangel^ with SS. Leonardo and Sebastian, 

A poor painting. 


The original Church of S. Lorenzo was consecrated 
by S. Ambrogio, Archbishop of Milan, io 393. . The 
bones of S. Zanobi were buried here in 429, but were 
transferred to the Duomo, then S. Reparata, in 490. 
It was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1423, 
and the present building was begun soon after by 
Brunellesco. He lived to complete only the Sagrestia 
Vecchia, and the church was continued by his pupil 






RPSHT^A|SLE and transept 137 

Antonio Manetti, who altered the original design. It 
contains several paintings of interest. 

Right Aisle 

(2nd Chapel.) ROSSO FIORENTINO. The 

Marriage of the f^irgin. o.w. 

" He painted in S. Lorenzo for Carlo Ginori the picture 
of the Marriage of Our Lady, held to be a very beautiful 
work^ (Vas. v. 159.) 

The painting shows the influence of Pontormo and 
Michelangelo. The old turbaned woman seated on 
the steps recalls Rosso's painting of the Fates in the 
Pitti. The young girl beside her, whose draperies 
model her form in classic fashion, recalls Pontormo. 


*(ist Chapel, right.) PIER DI COSIMO. 
Madonna adoring the Christ Child, t.w. 

A fine painting, of warm harmonious colour. The 
Virgin kneels before the Christ Child, who lies 
before her, and on either side kneel SS. Francesco 
and Giuliano. Behind is a beautiful landscape through 
which streams wind. 

(Last Chapel, left of Choir.) SCH. OF GHIR- 
LANDAIO. S. Antonio Enthroned between 
SS. Lorenzo and Giuliano. T.w. 

A good school painting. In the Predella are three 
scenes from the lives of SS. Lorenzo and Giuliano. 
The introduction of the two Saints suggests that it 
was painted at the commission of the Medici. 

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*(Cappella Martelli.) FRA FILIPPO. The An- 
nunciation, T.w. 

" In S, Lorenzo in the Chapel of the Operat he painted 
a picture with an Annunciation.'^^ (Vas. ii. 6i8.) 

One of his best and most charming works. Against 
a background of architecture and a garden going back 
in deep perspective, the Virgin half rises from her 

prayer-desk and 
turns towards 
the Archangel, 
a childish figure, 
kneeling before 
her. Her atti- 
tude, half kneel- 
ing, half stand- 
ing, in arrested 
movement, re- 
calls that of 
Donatcllo's Vir- 
gin in the An- 
nunciation of S. 
Croce. Left are 
two child angels, 
the one gazing 
out of the pic- 
ture of special 
In the Predella are three scenes from 
of S. Niccolo da Bari : the Martyrdom 
Saints prevented by the Saint, the Saint 
throwing money to the daughters of a nobleman forced 
by poverty to prostitution, and the resuscitation of three 
youths who during the famine have been killed and 
salted for provision. The painting is well preserved, 
and the colour cool and silvery. 

Filippo Lippi, Lorenzo. 

the life 


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Left Aisle 
BRONZING. The Martyrdom of S. Lorenzo. FR. 

The fresco is confused in composition and bad in 
drawing. It was painted in his old age, and is pro- 
bably chiefly the work of assistants. It was still 
unfinished when Vasari wrote of it. 

" And because at his present age of sixty^five years he 
is no less enamoured of things of art than when he was 
young, he has undertaken finally to faint, as the duke 
wished, in the Church of S. Lorenzo, on the wall near 
the organ; in which work, excellent as he has always 
been, he will beyond doubt succeedJ^ (Vas. vii. 604.) 

In a letter written from Pisa in 1565 to Bronzino, 
Cosimo I. approves of the plan to paint both walls 
of the aisle. The other fresco was never executed, 
probably on account of the age of the painter, who 
died seven years after. 

Sagrestia Vecchia 

(On Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Ma- 
donna and Saints, T.w. 

Triptych. In the centre is the Virgin enthroned, with 
S. Clare and other Saints on the right, S. Lorenzo 
and other Saints on the left. 

(Wall left of Entrance.) ATT. RAFFAEL- 
LINO DEL GARBO. The Nativity. 


Against a landscape background the Virgin kneels 
before the Christ Child, over whom an Angel bends. 
Right are S. Francis and a monk ; left, S. John the 
Evangelist. Above is the Almighty with angels. 




(Right of Entrance.) MAINARDI (?) S. Lorenzo 

Enthroned between SS, Stephen and Leonardo. 

151 1. T.W. 

A fine painting, attributed to RafFaellino del Garbo. 
Dated on the cartello 1 5 1 1 . 

Sagrestia Nuova 

Having become the property of the State, the Sagrestia 
Nuova is entered by a door in the Chapel of the Grand 
Dukes, and that connecting it with the church is 
closed. In the passage leading from the Chapel of 
the Grand Dukes are four portraits of the Medici 
Princes, of little artistic value : Margherita of Austria, 
wife of Alessandro ; Ferdinando, son of Cosimo III., 
and his wife, Violante of Bavaria ; and Cristina of 
Lorraine, wife of Ferdinando I. 


(Via de' Bardi) 

This church, founded before 1078, is interesting rather 
for what it once contained than for the paintings that 
remain. The choir chapel was frescoed at the com- 
mission of Niccolo da Uzzano by Lorenzo di Bicci. 

"H^ 'painted in the Chief Chapel in S, Lucia in 
Via de* Bardi some scenes in fresco of the life of that 
Saint, for Niccolo da Uzzano, who was therein por- 
trayed from life, together with some other citizensj' 
(Vas. ii. 54.) 

Vasari mentions altar-pieces painted by Spinello 
Aretino (Vas. i. 680) and by Zanobi Strozzi, the 
latter in the Chapel of the Nasi. (Vas. ii. 521.) 

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S. MARCO 141 

Over the second Altar, to the right, was formerly the 
Madonna and Saints, by Domenico Veneziano, now 
in the Uffizi, No. 1305. 

All that now remains worthy of notice is a copy by 
Cristofano Aliori of the miraculous Annunciation in 
the SS. Annunziata, on the fourth Altar to the right 
— the Chapel of the Sacrament ; and on the left wall 
of the same chapel a poor and much repainted work 
of the school of Verrocchio, representing the Journey 
of Tobias. 



On the site of the present Church of S. Marco existed 
as early as the XIII century an Oratory, which be- 
longed to the Order of Vallombrosan monks called the 
Silvestrini. The Order was suppressed by Martin V., 
and the convent and church given to the Dominicans, 
and both were enlarged and rebuilt by them, chiefly 
at the cost of Cosimo de' Medici. The architect was 
Michelozzo. The convent architecturally has suffered 
little change, but the church was completely modern- 
ised in the XVII century. The Sacristy, designed 
by Brunellesco, alone bears traces of the original 
building. T\icfa<;ade dates from 1780. 

Entrance Wall 
(Over Door.) ATT. GIOTTO. Crucifixion. 


One of the finest of these numerous painted Crucifixes. 
" He fainted in S. Marco in tempera a Crucifix of 
wood, larger than life, and on a gold background ; which 
was placed on the right of the church." (Vas. i. 394.) 

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142 S. MARCO 

(Right of Entrance.) PIETRO CAVALLINI. 
The Annunciation. FR. 

One of the few original decorations which remain. 
The church was already whitewashed in Vasari's 
time, so that he gives few records of the frescoes 
with which it was covered. He states that Pietro 
Cavallini, coming from Rome to Tuscany " to see the 
works of his master Giotto, and of his other pupils, 
painted in 5. Marco of Florence many figures which 
are not now to he seen, the church having been white^ 
washed, except the Annunciation^ which remains covered 
near the principal entrance of the church.^"* (Vas. i. 


It was uncovered not many years ago. It is much 

Right Aisle 

(2nd Altar.) FRA BARTOLOMMEO. Ma- 

donna and Saints, 1509. o.w. 

"H^ painted another picture held to he very fine 
with Our Lady and other Saints around. It merits 
extraordinary praise, he having introduced a manner of 
blending the colours in such wise . . . that the figures 
seem in relief and alive. "^^ (Vas. iv. 186.) 

The Virgin is enthroned beneath a canopy, from 
which Angels withdraw curtains. On either side are 
two standing Saints, and in front kneel the Magdalen 
and another female Sabt. The composition has the 
mechanical dullness peculiar to the master, but the 
kneeling Saints have some charm. It was painted in 
1509. It is much repainted. 

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(3rd Altar.) BYZANTINE SCH. Madonna of 
Mercy. Mosaic. 

A fine early mosaic, formerly over the door of the 
Oratory of the Porta Santa, Rome, as the inscription 
below records. It is the property of the Ricci family, 
and was brought from Rome by Michelangelo Buonar- 
roti the younger in 1609. It is inscribed above : mater 
MI8ERIC0RDIA. It is surrounded by a painting of the 
XVII century, imitating mosaic, representing SS. 
Dominic and Raimondo adoring the Madonna, with 
cherubs above. 

Left Aisle 

(Between ist and 2nd Altars.) SCH. OF 
GIOTTO. Large Figure of Saint and 
Fragment of Last Judgment. FR. 

Possibly one of the frescoes by Pietro Cavallini men- 
tioned by Vasari. 

^^ Among the -figures that he fainted in S. Marco was 
the portrait of Pope Urban V. with the heads of 
S. Peter and S. PauU life-size; from which portrait 
Fra Angelico da Fiesole painted that which is in a 
picture in S. Domenico di Fiesole ; and that was no 
small chance, because the portrait that was in S, Marco, 
with many other figures frescoed in the church, was 
whitewashed when that convent was taken from the 
monks who were formerly there and given to the Frati 
Predicatori, who whitewashed everything with little care 
and discrimination.'*^ (Vas, i. 540.) 

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144 S. MARCO 

Cappella di S. Antonino 

The Chapel of S. Antonino was built in 1588 by 
Giovanni da Bologna. It is richly decorated with 
sculptures and paintings, which merit little attention. 
On either side of the Atrium are two large frescoes 
by Passignano. To the right, the Burial of S. An- 
tonino in S. Marco, in the right foreground of which 
are the portraits of the founders of the chapel, Ave- 
rardo and Antonio Salviati. To the left, the funeral 
procession of the Samt, in which among the pall- 
bearers are Ferdinando I. and the Duke of Mantua, 
and again the two heads of the Salviati brothers. The 
roof is by Poccetti, and the decorations in grisaille are 
by Alessandro Allori. On the Altar is Christ in 
Limbo, attributed to Bronzino, but only of his school. 

*(In Chapel outside the Cappella di S. Antonino.) 
fixion^ with S. Antonino at the Foot of the 
Cross, T.c. 

A door on the left of the chapel gives access to a 
small garden, at the end of which is an open Loggia. 
Over the Altar is the large painting recently discovered 
by Signor Odoardo Giglioli. It is probably the work 
mentioned by Vasari as having been painted by An- 
tonio Pollaiuolo for the church. 

" He painted on canvas a Crucifixion with S, jin^ 
toninOf which is placed in his chapel in S, Marco,'* 

It must have been removed to its present place at 
the restoration of the chapel by Giovanni da Bologna. 
The painting is on canvas in tempera, and is in a state 
of great dilapidation. In composition it resembles the 
fresco by Fra Angelico in the first cloister of the 

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conveot. The figure of Christ, with the head slightly 
foreshortened, is well proportioned, and has something 
of the energy and muscular construction of Antonio 
Pollaiuolo, enough to account for Vasari's attribution. 
The Saint Antonino his the individuality of a portrait. 
The Cross stands in what must have been a beautiful 
and spacious landscape, but in its dilapidated state 
little can be seen. A classic grove of cypresses sur- 
rounds the Cross, and between the stems is vaguely 
seen a distant stretch of landscape. The painting is 
of great value, not only for its beauty and merit, but 
as showing the connection between Alesso and his 
pupil, Antonio Pollaiuolo. It is in a finely carved 
frame, from which the gilding is entirely worn away. 
The chapel is of the XIV century. On a marble 
tablet to the right is inscribed : hag chappellam fecit 


Of frescoes and paintings formerly in the church 
Vasari gives the following records. Bicci di Lorenzo 
decorated the Chapel of the Martini with frescoes from 
the life of the Virgin and an altar-piece of the Madonna 
and Saints, and another chapel with the Archangel 
Raffaelle and Tobias. The former were completed in 
1433 as the documents of payment prove. (Vas. ii. 
50.) In 1427 he frescoed also the Chapel of the 
Compagni. (Vas. ii. 64.) Cosimo Rosselli painted 
a Crucifixion, with SS. Mark, John the Evangelist, 
Antonino, and other figures. (Vas. iii. 189.) A 
picture answering to this description, supposed by 
Milanesi to be this altar-piece, was in the collection 
of Mr. Fuller Maitland, London. The Coronation of 
the Virgin, now in the Accademia, No. 73, was painted 
for S. Marco at the commission of the Arte della Seta. 
(Vas. iii. 312.) On the second Altar left was origin- 
ally the Madonna and Saints by Fra Bartolommeo, 

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146 S. MARCO 

now in the Pitti, No. 208. It was given by the 
monks to Bishop Milanesi in 1588, and in 1699 was 
bought by Prince Ferdinand, son of Cosimo III. It 
is now replaced by a copy. 

The Convent 

The convent is now converted to a Museum in which 
are collected numerous paintings, sculptures, and archie 
tectural fragments from suppressed churches and con- 
vents. It was entirely rebuilt by Michelozzo at the 
cost of Cosimo il Vecchio, whose stemma may be seen 
everywhere. The work was begun in 1437 and 
finished in 1452. Fra Angelico, leaving the Convent 
of S. Domenico a Fiesole, took up his abode here, 
and worked during ten years on the frescoes with 
which the walls are covered. Fra Bartolommeo lived 
also in the convent from 1500, and painted numerous 
works for it and the Church. 

First Cloister 

The first cloister is frescoed by Poccetti and his 
assisunts with scenes from the life of S. Antonino, 
some of which have the interest of showing the build- 
ings of Florence as they were in the XVII century. 

(North Wall. ist Lunette.) POCCETTI. 
5. Antonino dispersing the Crowd which follows 
a Bride, FR. 

In this painting is seen the old Gothic Font, attributed 
to Giotto, which is still in its original place inside the 





S. Peter Martyr 
Fra Angelica . 

*(Over Door of 
Sacristy.) FRA 
S. Peter Martyr. 

He has his finger 
on his lip imposing 

*(EastWall.) FRA 

The Crucifixion^ 

with S. Dominic 

at the foot of the 

Cross, FR. 

" He fainted in the 
first cloister in cer- 
tain lunettes, many 
beautiful figures in 
fresco, and a Cruci- 
fixion with S. Domi- 
nic at the foot, 
much praised.^' 
(Vas. ii. 508.) 

One of the finest 
of the frescoes. 
It is repeated on 
a smaller scale many times with variations in the cells 

(Over Door of Capitolo.) FRA ANGELICO. 

S. Dominic with Book and Scourge. FR. 
Much ruined. 

S. Dominic at foot of Cross 
Fra Angelica. 

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148 S. MARCO 

(South Wall. Over Door of Large Refectory.) 
FRAANGELICO. Pieth, fr. 

(2nd Lunette.) POCCETTL S, Antonino as a 
Child praying before the Crucifix of Or S. 
Michele, FR. 

Showing the Shrine of Orcagna, and the Crucifix 
before which S. Antonino used to pray, which is still 
over the Altar in the right aisle. 

(West Wall 
Over Door 
of Ospizio.) 
Twt) Domi- 
nicans receiv- 

ing Christ as 

Dominicans receiving Christ as a ^ rilgrim. 

Pilgrim ^k, 

Fra Angelico. 

(2nd Lunette.) POCCETTL S, Antonino taking 
possession of S. Maria del Fiore. FR. 

In this painting is seen the old fagade of the Duomo 
as it existed in the XVII century. 

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(Over Door near Entrance.) FRA ANGELICO. 

S, Thomas Aquinas. FR. 

Much repainted. 


The room has been recently hung with paintings of 
the XIV and XV centuries. Most of them are in a 
state of great dilapidation and badly repainted. 


dict and Donor, t.w. 

Fragment of altar-piece. 

2 SCH. OF GIOTTO. The Crucifixion, T.W. 

3 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. S, Jerome, t.w. 

4, 6, and 7 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Ma- 

donna and Saints, T.w. 

Parts of large altar-piece. 
5 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Annunciation. 

Completely repainted. 

8 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Madonna, t.w. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

150 S. MARCO 

9 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Madonna and 

SaintSy with Predella, T.w. 

Large Polyptych, much damaged aod blackened by 

10 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Five Saints, 

Attributed to Neri di Bicci, but seeming of earlier date. 

12 LORENZO MONACO. The Crucifixion, 

11 and 13 LORENZO MONACO. The 

Virgin and Evangelist, t.w. 

These three panels, the two last in frames of the 
XVIII century, have been much repainted, and the 
background smeared over with cheap gold, which 
gives them a meretricious look. 

14 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Coronation 

of the Virgin and Four Saints, t.w. 


with SS. Stephen and Reparata. T.w. 

Entirely repainted. 


The Coronation of the Virgin, T.w. 

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Crucifixion^ with S. Francesco and Donor, 

18 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Cruci- 

fixion. T.w. 

19 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Madonna En- 

throned, t.w. 

20 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Madonna and 

Four Saints, T.w. 


nunciation. T.w. 

A beautiful painting, much damaged and badly re- 
painted. It is labelled a free copy from Fra Fiiippo, 
and is almost worthy of his own hand. It resembles 
the Annunciation by him in the Munich Gallery, No. 
1005, which was painted for S. Maria Primerana, 
Fiesole. The Virgin, a stately and beautiful figure, 
sunds reverently beneath a portico, beyond which is a 
conventional garden. The Angel kneels before her, 
and another stands in the doorway on the left. 
Another fine painting by the same hand is in S. 
Giovanni dei Cavalieri, also an Annunciation. 

22 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Predella, with 
Pieta and Scenes from the Life of Peter 
Martyr, T.w. 

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152 S. MARCO 


Madonna Enthroned with Six Saints, T.w. 

24 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Predel/a, with - 

the Meeting of Joachim and Anna and two 
Kneeling Donors, T.w. 

A painting of much charm. 

25 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. S. Lorenzo. T.w. 
Id Predella, the Martyrdom of the Saint. 

26 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. S. Fincenzo 

Ferreriy with Predella, T.w. 

27 ATT. SCH. OF BOTTICINL S, Fincenzo 

Ferreriy with Kneeling Donor. T.w. 

28 SCH. OF BOTTICELLL Madonna. T.w. 

29 NERI DI BICCI. The Coronation of the 

Virgin. T.w. 

Much damaged and badly repainted. 

30 NERI DI BICCI. Predella to the above. 


31 GIUSTO DI ANDREA. S. Bernardino 

with Angels. T.W. 

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32 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna and 
Four Saints, T.w. 

Much damaged and repainted. 

Large Refectory 

In the Sala del Lavabo, preceding the Large Refectory, 
are some uninteresting paintings of the XVI and XVII 
centuries. In the Refectory itself are several altar- 
pieces of the same date, and on the right wall the 
splendid marble frame formerly enclosing the Madonna 
and Saints by Fra Angel ico, now in the Uffizi, No. 
17. It still retains traces of gold and colour. It was 
executed by Jacopo di Bartolommeo da Settignano and 
Simone Ferruci da Fiesole in 1433. 


Cenacoloy called ^^ La Provvidenxa,^'^ 1536. 

" Giovanni Antonio^ being called by the frati of 
S. Marco of Florence to paint at the end of their Re- 
fectory a work in fresco at the cost of one of the serving 
friars of the Molletti, fainted where S. Dominic, being 
in the Refectory with his frati and having no bread, 
frayed to God, and the table was miraculously covered 
with loaves brought by two Angels in human form. In 
which work he fortrayed many frati who were then in 
the Convent, who seem most livings and sfecially that 
serving friar of the Moletti who waits at table. ^^ 
(Vas. V. 129.) 

Vasari attributes to Sogliani also the beautiful 
Crucifixion above, really by Fra Bartolommeo himself. 

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" He fainted then in the lunette over the table 
S. Dominic at the foot of a Crucifix, Our Lady and 
S, John the Evangelist^ who weep, and at the sides 

"La Provvidenza" 
Fra Bartolommeo and Sogliani. S. Marco. 

S. Catherine of Siena and S. Antonino, Archbishop of 
Florence, and of that order. ^^ (Vas. v. 130.) 

These figures are among Fra Bartoiommeo's best 
works. The landscape behind the Crucifixion, with 
the view of S. Marco, is of great beauty. 

*FRA ANGELICO. The Crucifixion, with Saints. 

1 44 1 (?). FR. 

One of his largest and most important works, but 
much repainted. 

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" The Father was much loved for his virtues by 
Cosimo de^ Medici^ who, having caused the Church and 
Convent of S. Marco to he rebuilt, ordered him to 'paint 
on the wall of the Chapter all the Passion of Jesus 
Christ; and on one of the sides the Saints, who have 
been the chiefs and founders of religious orders, assembled 
together and weeping at the foot of the Cross, and on 
the other S, Mark the Evangelist near to the Mother 
of the Son of God swooning to behold the Saviour of the 

The Crucifixion 
Fra Angelico. 

world crucified ; around whom are the Maries who 
sorrowfully support her ; and the Saints Cosimo and 
Damiano. It is said that in the face of 5. Cosimo 
Fra Giovanni portrayed from life Nanni di Antonio di 
Banco, the sculptor, his friend. Beneath this work he 
painted in a frieze a tree with S. Dominic at its foot, 
and in certain tondi which the branches surround, all 
the popes, cardinals, bishops, saints, and masters in 
theology, who up to that time his order of the Preaching 
Friars had produced. In which work, aided by the 

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156 S. MARCO 

Fratif who sent for them to diferent farts, he fainted 
many portraits, which are these : S. Dominic in the 
midsty who holds the branches ipf the tree ; Pope Inno- 
cent F,, a Frenchman ; the Beato Ugone, first cardinal 
of that order ; the Beato Paulo, a Florentine, Patriarch ; 
S, Antonino, Archbishop of Florence ; the Beato 
Giordano, a German, second General of that Order ; the 
Beato Niccolo ; the Beato Remigio, a Florentine ; 
Boninsegno, a Florentine, Martyr, All these are on 
the right hand, Then on the left are Benedict XL of 
Jreviso ; Giandomenico, Florentine, Cardinal ; Pietro 
da Palude, Patriarch of Jerusalem ; Alberto Magno, 
a German ; the Beato Raimondo of Catalonia, third 
General of the Order ; the Beato Chiaro of Florence, 
Provincial of Rome ; S, Vincenxio of Valentia, and 
the Beato Bernardo of Florence ; all which heads are 
very graceful and beautifuV^ (Vas. ii. 507, &c.) 

The fresco was commissioned by Cosimo il Vecchio 
about 1 44 1. 

The door beyond the Capitolo leads to the upper 
floor. In the passage are several altar-pieces of the 
XVI and XVII centuries, among them a copy by 
Antonio Franchi of the colossal figure of S. Mark, 
now in the Pitti, No. 125, which was painted by Fra 
Bartolommeo for the church. 

Small Refectory 

One of his best works. It is mentioned by Vasari, 
without comment. (Vas. iii. 258.) In composition 
it resembles his Cenacolo in the Ognissanti, but is a 
finer work and in a better state of preservation. 
The existing architecture has been skilfully utilised, 
the painted vaultings of the hall branching out from 
the real arch in a most deceptive way. Several birds 

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and animals are introduced, painted with great realism ; 

Ghirlandaio. S. Marco. 

on the window sill a peacock, birds fly across the sky, 
and in the foreground is seated a cat. 

Corridor of the Forester: a 

A door on the right of the Refectory gives access to 
the corridor of the Foresteria, which is filled with 
fragments of architecture and sculpture. Over the 
doors of the cells, now converted into museums, are 
busts of Saints by Era Bartolommeo. 

FRA BARTOLOMMEO. Four Busts of Saints, 

Over Sala III., S. Vincenzo Ferreri; over Sala IV., 
S. Thomas Aquinas ; over Sala V., S. Peter Martyr ; 
over Sala VI., S. Dominic. 

At the end of the corridor are a few paintings, of 
which the most important are — 

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Annunciation, FR. 

Completely ruined. 

49 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna and 

Saints. FR. 

Upper Floor. Cells of the Monks 

The cells were painted by Fra Angelico, assisted by 
his brother, Fra Benedetto,^ between the years 1436 
and 1 445 9 in which year he was summoned to Rome 
to paint the Chapel of S. Stephen for Nicholas V. in 
the Vatican. 

" In the Dormitory he painted, besides other things 
for the cells and on the fagade of the walls, a scene of 
the New Testament, more beautiful than can be told.^^ 
(Vas. ii. 508.) 

The Annun- 

The Annunciation 
Fra Angelico, 

One of his 
best works, 
treated with 
great charm. 
Under a log- 
giathe Virgin 

1 Fra Benedetto took the Dominican habit in 1407, at the 
same time as Fra Angelico. He was much praised for his 

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is seated on a low stool, the Angel bendmg in adora- 
tion before her. Beyond is a garden. Below is 
inscribed : virginis intacte cvm veneris ante figvram 


shalt have come before the image of the pure Virgin, 
beware lest by negligence the Ave be silent.") 

(Wall opposite.) FRA ANGELICO. The 

CrucifixioHy with S, Dominic at the foot of 
the Cross. 

A varied replica of the fresco in the first cloister. 

(Cell I.) FRA ANGELICO. ''Noli me Tangere^ 

In a garden at the door of the sepulchre kneels the 
Magdalen, whom Christ as a gardener, with a hoe 
over his shoulder, passes swiftly. The drawing is 
not impeccable, but the rapid movement is well 

(Cell 11.) FRA BENEDETTO. The Entomb- 

On the left, as in most of these scenes, stands S. 
Dominic as spectator. 

(Cell III.) FRA ANGELICO. The Annunciation, 
with S, Dominic, 

piety, and was one of the great friends of S. Antonino, who, 
while Prior of the convent, elected him Sub-Prior. He was 
made Prior of S. Domenico a Fiesole, and died in 1448 of the 





(Cell IV.) FRA ANGELICO. The Crucifixion. 

Left are the Virgin and Evangelist ; right, SS. 
Dominic and Jerome. The fresco is much damaged. 

(CellV.) FRA BENEDETTO (?) The Nativity, 
with SS, Dominic and Catherine of Siena, 

♦(Cell VI.) FRA 

The Transfigu- 

One of the best 
of the frescoes. 
Christ in white 
robes in a man- 
dorla of light 
stands on a 
rocky SS. Peter, 
James, and John 
kneeling below. 
Right, SS. 

Dominic and 
Catherine of 
Siena, and 
above, two heads of Prophets. 

The Transfigurat 
Fra Angelico. 

(Cell VII.) FRA ANGELICO. ''Ecca Homor 

Christ in white draperies is enthroned, with the head 
of a man spitting and a pair of buffeting hands on 
either side. Below are seated SS. Domenico and 
Catherine of Siena. 

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(Cell VIII.) FRA ANGELICO. The Resume- 
tioriy with S. Catherine of Siena, 

*(CellIX.) FRA ANGELICO. The Corona- 
tion of the Virgin. 

One of the bebt of the frescoes. Above, Christ in 
white crowns the Virgin, also in white. Below, kneel, 
left, SS. Dominic, Benedict, and Thomas ; right, SS. 
Francis, Peter Martyr, and Paul. 

(Cell X.) FRA ANGELICO. The Presentation 
in the Temple, 

This fresco is much damaged and repainted. 

(Cell XL) FRA ANGELICO. The Madonna 
Enthroned between a Bishop and S. Dominic. 
Much repainted. 

(Cell XII. This and the two following were the 
cells of Savonarola.) FRA BARTO- 
LOMMEO. Christ and the Two Disciples 
at Emmaus. FR. 

Painted for the Hospice of the convent on the 
Mugnone. It was brought to S. Marco in 1867, 
and placed in the Refectory. Removed here in 


" He painted in fresco in an arch over the Foresteria 
of S, Marco, Christ with Cleo-phas and Luke; in 
which he portrayed Fra Niccolo della Magna when he 
was young, who was after Archbishop of Capua and 
finally Cardinal.^' (Vas. iv. 197.) 

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1 62 




Both these frescoes are much repainted and very 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Execution of Savona- 
rola in the Pia%%a Signoria. o.w. 

The larger of these two paintings is a copy of the 
original in the Palazzo Corsini. 

♦(Cell XIII.) FRA 
MEO. Portrait of 
Savonarola, o.w. 

(Cell XIV.) ATT. 

CO. The Cruci- 
fixion, Small 

Thinly painted on 
linen. It was car- 
ried by Savonarola 
in his procession 
through the city. 
It is little more 
than an outline. 
The eight cells following were occupied by the 
Giovanati — the young monks who had just passed 

Portrait of Savonarola 
Fra Bartolommeo. 

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their novitiate. In each is a varied replica of Fra 
Angelico's Crucifixion in the first cortlle. Some 
are by the master himself, but most by his assistant. 

(Cell XV.) FRA ANGELICO. Crucifixion 
with S, Dominic, 

(Cell XVI.) FRA BENEDETTO. Crucifixion 
with S, Dominic. 

(Cell XVII.) FRA ANGELICO. Crucifixion 
with S, Dominic. 

These two are much damaged. 

(Cell XVIII.) FRA ANGELICO. Crucifixion 
with S. Dominic. 

(Cell XIX.) FRA ANGELICO (?) Crucifixion 
with S. Dominic. 

(Cell XX.) FRA BENEDETTO. Crucifixion 
with S. Dominic. 

Here the Saint has cast off his robes, and is seen 
half-naked with ah iron scourge. 

(Cell XXL) FRA BENEDETTO. Crucifixion 
with S. Dominic. 

(Cell XXII.) FRA BENEDETTO. Crucifixion 
with S. Catherine of Siena. 

Much damaged. 

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i64 S. MARCO 

(CellXXIIL) FRA BENEDETTO. Crucifixion 
with SS, Dominic and Catherine of Siena, 

Baptism with SS, Dominic and Catherine 
of Siena. 

Much repainted. 

(Cell XXV.) FRA BENEDETTO. Crucifixion 
with the Magdalen^ SS, Dominic and Cathe- 
rine of Siena, 

*(On Wall between Cells XXV. and XXVI.) 
FRA ANGELICO. Madonna Enthroned 
with Saints, 

A fine fresco. The Virgin is seated on a marble 
throne with the Child, grave and hieratic, on her knee. 
Right are SS. Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Lorenzo, and 
Peter Martyr; left, SS. Mark, Domenico, Cosimo, 
and Damiano. 

(Cell XXVI.) FRA ANGELICO. Pieti with 
SS, Dominic and Catherine of Siena, 

Much damaged. 



In the foreground is seated S. Catherine of Siena, and 
S. Domenico, stripped for flagellation, kneels. 

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Way to Calvary with SS. Dominic and 
Catherine of Siena, 

Crucifixion with SS, Dominic and Catherine 
of Siena. 

Crucifixion with SS, Dominic and Catherine 
of Siena, 

(Cell XXXI. Cell of S. Antonino.) FRA 
BENEDETTO. Limbo, fr. 

FRA BARTOLOMMEO. Head of S, Antonino, 

FLOR. SCH. XVII CENT. Portrait of the 
Beato Lorenzo di Ripafratta^ Master of 
S, Antonino, 


Sermon on the Mount. 

(Inner Cell.) FRA BENEDETTO. The^ 

Much ruined. 

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1 66 S. MARCO 

Betrayal, FR. 

*FRA ANGELICO. ''Madonna della Stellar 


A small mioiature-like paiDting of great beauty. The 
Virgin stands holding the Child, and, above, the 
Almighty bends down to her. Right and left are 
three Angels, and seated below are two others, 
charming figures dressed in green, who play organs 
on either side of a vase. On the gradino^ SS. 
Domenico, Thomas Aquinas, and Peter Martyr. 
The name is derived from the star on the head of 
the Virgin. It was formerly in the Sacristy of 
S. Maria Novella. 

Inner Cell.) FRA BENEDETTO. The Entry 
of Christ into Jerusalem, FR. 

The other part of this fresco was destroyed in con- 
structing the window. 

*FRA BENEDETTO (?) The Coronation of the 
Firgin. T.W. 

A fine miniature-like painting, but hardly delicate 
enough to be by Era Angelico's own hand. At the 
top of some steps Christ crowns the Virgin, surrounded 
by Angels making music. Below are Prophets and 
Saints, and S. Domenico in the foreground. On the 
gradino the Nativity with Angels. If this be by Era 
Benedetto, it is his masterpiece. It was formerly in 
the Sacristy of S. Maria Novella. 

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Agony in the Garden, FR. 

♦FRA ANGELICO. The Annunciation and the 
Adoration of the Magi. T.w. 

Very delicately finished and decorative, with much 
stamped gold- work. Below, in the gradino^ is the 
Madonna surrounded by ten female Saints. This 
and the two Tabernacles in Cell XXXIII. were 
painted at the commission of Era Giovanni Masi, 
monk of the convent, for S. Maria Novella, and were 
removed here from the Sacristy. (Vas. ii. 513.) 

Last Supper. 

In front, watching the scene, kneel S. Catherine of 
Siena and four male Saints. 




(Cell XXXVIII. Cell of Cosimo il Vecchio.) 
FRA ANGELICO. The Crucifixion , 

(Inner Cell.) FRA ANGELICO. The Adora- 
tion of the Magi. FR. 

Below in a recess a Pieta, and in the thickness of the 
walls the symbols of the Passion. 

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♦PONTORMO. Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio. 

" He fainted for Messer Goto da Pistoja, at that 
time secretary of the Medici, the head of the Magnifico 
Cositno il Vecchio de^ Medici from the knees upward, 
which is certainly admirable. It is now in the house 
of Messer Ottaviano de* Medici in the possession of 
Messer Alessandro his son. . . ." (Vas. vi. 264.) 

He is seated in red velvet robe and cap, his hands 
clasped together, before a bay tree, on which an 
inscribed scroll is entwined. The portrait was for- 
merly in the Uffizi. 





(35 Via Alfani) 

The Convent of S. Maria degli Angel i was founded 
in the XIII century by the Knights of the Order 
of the Virgin, and was one of the most important in 
Florence. It was enlarged and restored in the XV 
century by the Camaldolese monks, and again in 1700. 
In 1378 it was sacked during the Ciompi riots. In 
the early part of the XV century it was the meeting 
ground of the humanists. The convent is suppressed, 
and the building now forms part of the Hospital of 
S. Maria Nuova, with which it communicates. 

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♦Small Cloister.) ANDREA DAL CASTAGNO. 

Crucifixion, FR. 

" Within the city, in the Convent of the Monaci 
degli Angeli, in the first cloister opposite the principal 
entrance, he painted the Crucified Christ, Our Lady, 
S. Giovanni, S. Benedetto, and S, Romualdo. And at 
the top of the cloister that is over the garden he painted 
another like it, varying only the heads and little else^ 
(Vas. ii. 669.) 

The Christ, with foreshortened head and grave con- 
centrated expression, is a very characteristic and noble 
figure. The Magdalen, the Evangelist, and Virgin 
are entirely and badly repainted. The S. Benedict 
holding the scourge, in spite of over-daubing, still 
retains its dignity. The other fresco mentioned by 
Vasari is now in the Uffizi, No. 12. It was formerly 
in the collection of S. Maria Nuova. 

Vasari mentions other frescoes painted in the cloisters, 
among which the most important were a series of scenes 
from the life of S. Benedict by Paolo Uccello, in terra 
verde, which he minutely describes. (Vas. ii. 213.) 

For the Altar of the church, Lorenzo Monaco 
painted in 141 3 the colossal altar-piece representing the 
Coronation of the Virgin, now in the Uffizi, No. 1309. 
It was removed to make way for one by Alessandro 
Allori, and was taken to the Badia of S. Pietro a 
Cerreto near Certaldo, which belonged to the convent. 
(Vas. ii. 18.) 


The Gothic Church of S. Maria Maggiore was already 
in existence in the XI century. It was restored in 
131 1 by Arnolfo. In 152 1 it was ceded to the 
Reformed Carmelites, who built in 1588 the convent 

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now suppressed. In 1 8 14 the church was completely 
modernised, and the Bell Tower, which stood on the 
side facing Via Cerretani, was destroyed. In 1849 ^^ 
was again restored, and several of the old frescoes were 
uncovered from the whitewash. Recently a further 
restoration has brought others to light in the choir. 

On several of the pilasters and columns are remains 
of Giottesque frescoes. On the pilaster right of 
entrance a female Saint and S. John the Evangelist. 
On the column beyond, Faith, the Baptist, the Mag- 
dalen, and S. Stephen. On the second, S. Sebastian 
and Jonah with the Whale. On the third, S. Niccolo 
da Bari and S. Peter. 

In the choir are fragments of frescoes, one of which 
represents the Murder of the Innocents. All are much 
repainted. Vasari states this chapel to have been 
painted by' Spinello (Vas. i. 678); but the frescoes 
are really the work of his son Filippo, executed at the 
commission of Messer Barone Cappelli. 

On the Altar is a Polyptych of the XIV century, 
representing the Madonna and Saints. The original 
altar-piece was, according to Vasari, by Agnolo Gaddi, 
and represented the Coronation of the Virgin. (Vas. 
i. 639.) Of other paintings executed for the church 
he gives the following records. Paolo Uccello painted 
" in a Chapel near the door on the side that goes to 
S, Giovanni, where is the picture of Masaccio, an 
Annunciation in jrescoP (Vas. ii. 206.) He praises 
at length the wonderful perspective of this scene. 
The painting by Masaccio he describes as an altar- 
piece with the Madonna, SS. Catherine and Giuliano, 
with a Predella representing the Nativity and scenes 
from the lives of those Saints. (Vas. ii. 292.) Lippo 
painted in 1383 the Chapel of the Beccati, left of the 
choir, with scenes from the life of S. John the Evange- 
list, and in the next six scenes from the life of the same 
Saint, described and praised by Vasari. (Vas. ii. 12.) 

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Pesellino painted for the Chapel of the Orlaodini a 
Madonna and Saints. For the Chapel of the Pan- 
ciatichi was painted the Entombment, now in the 
Munich Gallery, No. 10 10, attributed by Vasari to 
Botticelli, and by Morelli to RafFaellino del Garbo. 
(Vas. iii. 312.) In Richa's time it was in the 
Sacristy. It was sold to Ludwig I. of Bavaria. 
The S. Sebastian of Botticelli, now in the Berlin 
Gallery, was painted in 1473 for this church. 


(Via de' Pinti) 

The Church and Convent of S. Maria Maddalena de' 
Pazzi were named after Caterina, daughter of Camillo 
de' Pazzi, a nun of the Carmelite Order, who was born 
1566, entered the Convent of S. Maria degli Angeli 
in 1582, and died 1607. Its original name was II 
Cestello. The convent was formerly outside the 
circuit of the city walls, and belonged to the Bene- 
dictine nuns till the XIII century, when it was ceded 
to the Cistercian monks of S. Salvadore, under whom 
it was completely restored in 1479. It was presented 
by Ferdinando II. to the Carmelites, and the monks 
transferred to the Convent of S. Frediano. It is now 
used as schools, and the nuns have built a church and 
convent in the Piazza Savonarola, to which they have 
transferred the relics of their patron Saint. 


(Entrance in Via della Colonna) 

♦PERUGINO. The Crucifixion, 1493-1496. 

Mentioned by Vasari without comment. (Vas. iii. 584.) 

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The fresco occupies the entire wall of the chapter- 
house. It is divided into three parts, filling the arches 
of the wall. In the centre is Christ on the Cross, 
with the Magdalen at the foot. Right, the Evangelist 

^r'^^BT ''V 



kT ^ jLj 


4|l -^ 





IV ^M 








The Crucifixion 
Perugino. S. Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi. 

with S. Benedict ; left, the Virgin with S. Bernard. 
The figures are life-size, and are set in a spacious 
landscape. The fresco is much repainted. It was 
begun in 1493 at the commission of Dionisio Pucci, 
and was finished 1496. 

SCH. OF PERUGINO. The Fision of S, Benedict. 


An interesting work. The Saint, kneeling at the foot 
of the Cross, receives in his arms the body of Christ, 
which bows towards him. 

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CHAPELS .,173 

Church. Right Aisle 

(5th Chapel.) FLOR. SCH. XVI CENT. 
The Annunciation, 1 5 13. o.c. 

Much damaged and blackened by smoke. In fine 
original frame, which is dated mdxiii. Above is an 
interesting stained-glass window of the XV century, 
representing S. Francis receiving the stigmata. 

Leff Aisle 

(2nd Chapel. Cappella de' Gigli.) COSIMO 
ROSSELLI. The Coronation of the Virgin. 

1505. T.W. 

Mentioned by Vasari. (Vas. iii. 185.) By Richa 
and others attributed to Fra Angelico. An uninter- 
esting painting. Against a blue background Christ 
crowns the Virgin surrounded by red cherubs. Right 
and left and below are Angels and Saints, in the fore- 
ground S. Benedict and the Magdalen. The colour 
is heavy and disagreeable. In fine original frame. 

(3rd Chapel.) 

The stained-glass window representing S. Lorenzo 
is designed by Alesso Baldovinetti ; a characteristic 
and charming figure. 

(4th Chapel. Cappella di S. Sebastiano.) RAF- 
and Rock, T.w. 

Mentioned by Vasari. (Vas. iv. 239.) On either 
side of the wooden statue of S. Sebastian. 

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For this church Botticelli designed the beautiful 
Annunciation now in the Uffizi, No. 1316, which 
appears to have been paifited by another hand. (Vas. 
iii. 314.) 


The Church of S. Maria NoveUa was begun in 1278. 
The lower part of the facade dates from 1350, but 
was left unfinished, and was completed in 1470 by 
Leon Battista Alberti at the cost of the Rucellai 
family. The church underwent complete restoration 
in 1 565 by Vasari at the order of Cosimo I. 

Entrance Wall 
(Over Chief Door.) GIOTTO. Crucifixion. 


" He fainted in temfera a Crucifix in wood larger 
than life upon a gold ground . . . in S. Maria Novella, 
on which Puccio Capanna his assistant worked in 
company with him ; and this is still over the chief 
door entering the Church to the right over the Tomb of 
the Gaddi.'' (Vas. i. 394.) 

In the Testament of Riccuccio di Puccio, dated 
1312, mention is made of this crucifix as haying been 
painted by Giotto. It is one of the finest of such 

♦(Right of Entrance.) MASACCIO. The Trinity 
with the FirgiHy the Evange/isty and two 
Donors, fr. 

" In S, Maria Novella he painted in fresco below 
the tramezzo of the Church, a Vrinity, which is placed 

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over the Altar of 5. Ignazio, and Our Lady and S. John^ 
the Evangelist on either side contemplating Christ 
crucified. At the sides kneel two figures, which as far 
as can he judged, are -portraits of those who gave the 
commission, hut little can be seen of them, being covered 
by a gold decoration. But what is very beautiful 
besides the figures, is a vaulted roof drawn in per- 
spective and divided into squares filled with rosettes, 
which are diminished and foreshortened so well that it 
seems as though the wall was actually pierced,''^ (Vas. 
ii. 291.) 

As portraiture the faces of the donors are very fine, 
and the forms have Masaccio's characteristic solid 
modelling. The fresco seems to have been removed 
to the left aisle when the tramezzo was destroyed, 
for it was found beneath an altar-piece by Vasari him- 
self in the Cappelia del Rosario, second from the 
entrance, whence it was removed to its present place. 
It is much damaged and repainted. 

(Left of Entrance.) AGNOLO GADDI(?) The 

Annunciation, Below^ The Nativity, The 
Adoration of the Magi^ and The Baptism. 


Entirely repainted. It was formerly over the Tomb 
of the Gaddi which was on the tramezzo destroyed 
in 1565, where Taddeo Gaddi had also painted a 
S. Girolamo, " he having a devotion for that Saint and 
having chosen him protector of his housed* (Vas. i. 
583.) In the place to which the Annunciation has 
been transferred was formerly the Adoration of the 
Magi by Botticelli, now in the Uffizi, No. 1286. 

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Right Transept 

(Tomb of the Patriarch of Constantinople.) 
FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The Patriarch 
of Constantinople. FR. 

Much ruined and so repainted as to seem rather of the 
XVII than the XV century. The Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople died in Florence in 14409 where he had 
come to assist at the Ecumenical Council convoked by 
Eugenius IV. 

**(Rucellai Chapel.) DUCCIO DI BUONIN- 
SEGNA. Madonna Enthroned. 1285. 

Formerly attributed to Cimabue on the authority of 

" He fainted for the Church of 5. Maria Novella 
the picture of Our Lady^ which is placed high up 
between the Chapel of the RuceUai and that of the 
Bardi da Vemio ; which work was of a larger size 
than . had been painted up to that time ; and some 
Angels around show that^ although he had the Greek 
style, he was approaching partly to the drawing and 
manner of the modems ; wherefore this work so aston- 
ished the people of that time, nothing better having been 
seen up to that date, that from the house of Cimabue 
it was brought in most solemn procession to the Churchy 
with much joy and with the sound of trumpets, and he 
was greatly rewarded and praised. It is said, and in 
certain records of old painters can be read^ that while 
Cimabue was painting the said picture in certain 
gardens near the Porta S. Piero, King Charles the 
Elder of Anjou passed through Florence, and that among 
the many welcomes m^de him by the citizens, they con- 

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ducted him to see the 'picture of Cimabue ; and since 
it had hitherto been seen by no one, when it was shown 
to the King all the men and women of Florence 
assembled there with very great joy and the greatest 
thronging in the world. Wherefore for the joy that 
the neighbors had, the place was called Borgo Allegro^ 
which, later enclosed within the walls of the city, has 
ever since retained the same nameP (Vas. i. 255.) 

The story is legendary, for Charles of Anjou passed 
through Florence in 1267, and the picture was not 
painted till 1285. The document of commission to 
Duccio exists in the Archivio di Stato, dated 1285. 
The Madonna resembles almost exactly that in the 
altar-piece painted by Duccio in 13 10 for the High 
Altar of the Duomo, Siena, now in the Opera del 
Duomo. The Virgin, a colossal figure of hieratic 
dignity, is adored by six Angels. The gorgeous gold 
work gives it great decorative value. The figure of 
the Child shows an observation of nature almost 



An interesting work, painted for Fra Tommaso Cortesi, 
who is represented kneeling at the feet of the Saint. 

♦BUGIARDINI. The Martyrdom of S. Catherine , 

A large painting, of which Vasari relates that it was 
ordered by Palla Rucellai for the Altar of the chapel, 
and that Bugiardini left it unfinished for twelve years, 
because he had neither invention nor draughtsmanship 
enough to represent the scene as it should be, altering 
one day what he had done the day before, until 
Rucellai, growing impatient, he begged the aid of 

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Michelangelo, his chief difficulty being to put in per- 
spective the soldiers ranged on either side. Michel- 
angelo, laughing but pitiful, sketched for him on the 
panel ^* a row of marvellous figures . . . and some 
dead and wounded.'* But this was useless because, 
being only outlined, Bugiardini knew not how to place 
the light and shade, and again appealing to his friend 
Tribolo, that sculptor modelled for him the figures in 
clay, which, being too rough to please him, he smoothed 
them down with a brush and finished the work in such 
a manner that no one would have thought Michel- 
angelo had ever had a hand in it. (Vas. vi. 204 ^nd 
207. ) This severe criticism must be due to some 
personal dislike of Vasari, for the picture has much 
merit. The Saint is surrounded by the instruments of 
torture elaborately and realistically presented. The 
lightning has destroyed the wheels, and the execu- 
tioners falling to the ground and flying terrified away 
are drawn with dramatic force. 

NERI DI BICCL The Annunciation. T.w. 

♦SIENESE SCH. XV CENT. Tobias and the 
Archangel^ with SS. Vincenzo Ferrero and 
Catherine of Siena, T.w. 

An interesting work of beautiful colour, chiefly black 
and gold. It was until lately in the Chiostro Verde 
and was attributed to Spinello. 

Chapel of the Sacrament 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. Frescoes. 

These frescoes, illustrating scenes in the life of some 
Saint, have been recently uncovered and restored. 




They are much damaged and repainted. There are 
three scenes on each wall. Right, at the top, a Bishop 
enthroned, so much damaged as to be nearly indis- 
tinguishable. Below, are two Bishops enthroned with 
three others on either side. Lastly, two monks pray- 
ing outside the walls of a city mocked by a group 
of people. Left, at the top a Bishop enthroned. 
Below, a Cardinal dying in his bed, his pulse being 
felt by a physician, and two nuns standing by in 
deep grief. Lastly, a mounted knight riding forward 
followed by armed soldiers, who turns to a monk 
barring his passage. The scenes on either side of the 
Altar are too much damaged to be distinguishable. In 
the frieze below are medallions with half- figures of 
Prophets and Saints. 

(On Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Ma- 
donna Enthroned with two Saints. T.w. 

Cappella Strozzi 

♦FILIPPINO LIPPL Scenes from the Lives of S, 
John the Evangelist and S, Philip, 1487- 
1502. FR. 

Vasari states that, having undertaken to paint the 
Chapel of Filippo Strozzi, Filippino began it, but after 
completing only the vaulting he returned to Rome to 
work for Cardinal Caraffa, which work finished he 
again continued the frescoes and completed them. 

" They are so well executed and with so much art 
and draughtsmanship that they astonish every one who 
sees them for the novelty and variety of the strange 
fancies therein ; armed men, temples, vases, helmets, 
armour, trophies, lances, standards, costumes, hoots. 

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head-dresses^ sacerdotal vestments, and other things, 
being fainted in a way that merits greatest fraise^ 
(Vas. iii. 471.) 

The frescoes are among his latest works and show 
strongly the influence of his Roman visit in the archi- 
tecture and archaeological details. In the vaulting are 
four Patriarchs. On the right wall, scenes from the 
life of S. Philip. 

* " On the other wall is S, Philip in the Temple of 
Mars, who makes issue from beneath the Altar the 
serpent which kills with its smell the son of the king, 
where in some steps the painter imitates the hole from 
which the serpent issues below the Altar^ and painted 
the fissure of a step so well that one evening one of 
Filipp6*s assistants, wishing to hide something so that 
it should not be seen by one who demanded admittance, 
ran to the hole hastily to secrete it within and found 
out his mistake. Filippo showed also so much art in 
the serpent that the poison, the stink, and the fire seem 
rather natural than painted.^^ (Vas. iii. 472.) 

Above is the Martyrdom of S. Philip, crucified by 
the outraged priests of Mars. 

" Much praised also is the invention of the scene 
where the Saint is crucified, because he conceived it 
thus — that he was extended on the Cross while it was 
on the ground, and all together was raised and drawn 
up by means of ropes and lever s,^^ &c. (Vas. iii. 473.) 

"^ On the left wall, S. John resuscitates Drusiana, in 
which the clothes and accessories show much archxo- 
logical study. 

" In the Resurrection of Drusiana by S. John the 
Evangelist is admirably shozvn the marvel of the on- 
lookers at seeing a man give life to a corpse with a 
single sign of the Cross ; and more astonished than the 
rest is a priest or philosopher, who has a vase in his 
hand, clad in antique fashion. Likewise in the same 
scene among several women variously clad, is seen a 




child which, frightened by a little Sfanish dog spotted 
redy who has taken his frock in its teeth, turns to his 
mother and hiding his face in her draperies seems no 
less fearful of being bitten by the dog than is the mother 
frightened and filled with awe at the resurrection of 
DrusianaJ^ (Vas. iii. 472.) 

Above is the Martyrdom of S. John. The window 
representing the Madonna with SS. Philip and John 

Resuscitation of Drusiana 
Filippino lAppi. S. Maria Novella. 

is also designed by Filippino. Round it are ornamental 
decorations in grisaille and gold. On either side of 
the tomb of Benedetto da Maiano are painted Faith 
and Charity, and in the angles of the arches Angels 
of Death holding skulls and bones. 

The frescoes were commissioned to Filippino in 
1487, but were not finished till 1502. This date is 
inscribed on the pilasters of the Triumph Arch in the 
Resuscitation of Drusiana. a • s • mcccccii philippinvs 
DE Lippis FACiEBAT. Both chapel and frescoes were 
restored in 1753, but they are in a good state of pre- 




serration. Technically they are among his best works, 
but the restlessness, the hysterical sentiment, and 
flaccidity of the figures show a moral decadence. 

Choir Chapel 

the Lives of the Virgin and Baptist. 1486- 
1490. FR. 

This chapel formerly belonged to the Ricci family, 
and was frescoed by Orcagna with similar subjects. 
But the roof being broken the paintings were much 
injured by damp, and the Ricci, unable to pay for the 
restoration, sold their right in the chapel to Giovanni 
Tornabuoni, chief of the Medici bank in Rome, in 1485. 
Giovanni had lost his wife, Francesca Pitti, in child- 
birth in 1477, and on his return he desired to decorate 
the chapel in her honour. Ghirlandaio had previously 
frescoed his chapel in S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, 
with scenes from the lives of the Virgin and Baptist, 
and he was commissioned to repeat them on a larger 
scale. He therefore demolished the frescoes of Or- 
cagna, and assisted by his brothers David and Bene- 
detto and his pupil Mainardi, began his work in i486, 
and completed it four years later. The frescoes have 
been unjustly condemned by some critics. For what 
they aim at they are most admirable. Ghirlandaio 
cared chiefly to reproduce the life of his own day, and 
to portray individuals. For portraiture and scenes of 
everyday contemporary life they are unrivalled. They 
were painted shortly after those in the Sassetti Chapel 
of S. Triniti. 

In the vaulting are the four Evangelists. On the 
right wall, seven scenes from the life of the Baptist ; 
on the left, seven from the life of the Virgin. 

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"l (Right Wall.) The Annunciation to Zaccharia 
of the Birth of a Son. 1490. 

" In the first is where Zaccheria^ sacrificing in the 
TempUy an Angel a'ppears to him and strikes him dumb 
for his incredulity ; in which scene . . . he portrayed 

S^i^Z-^^^y - 

1 , ~.^^-^;^g^ 

Annunciation to Zaccharia 
Ghirlandaio. S. Maria Novella. 

a number of Florentine citizens who then governed the 
State ^ and specially all those of the Tornabuoni house, 
young and old. Besides which . . . he painted in a 
group four half figures talking together . . . the most 
learned men that could be found in Florence at that 
time ; and they are first Messer Marsilio Ficino, who 
wears a canon^s vest ; the second with a red mantle and 
black neck ribbon is Cristofano Landini, and Demetrio 
Greco, who turns to him, and in the midst of them, he 
who has his hand slightly raised, is Messer Angela 

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Poliziano ; which figures are most living and animated.''^ 
(Vas. iii. 265.) 

These four arc in the left corner. The last is not 
Demetrio, but Gentile de' Becchi, Bishop of Arezzo. 
All the faces have the individuality of portraits. On 
the arch is the date 1490) showing it to be the last 

*2 The Visitation, 

" ^he second which follows is the Visitation of Our 
Lady and S. Elizabeth, in which are many women 

The Visitation 
Ghirlandaio, S. Maria Novella. 

who accompany her, with portraits of that date, and 
among them is portrayed Ginevra de^ Benci, then a 
very beautiful girl^ (Vas. iii. 266. ) 

Genevra de' Benci, who was married to a Niccolini 
in 1472, had died before the frescoes were begun, so 
that it is improbable she was portrayed among the 

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figures. Only one can be identified — the lady in gold 
brocade to the right — who, from the resemblance to 
the medal of Ghirlandaio, seems to be Giovanna degli 
Albizzi, wife of Lorenzo Tornabuoni, Giovanni's son. 
In the background is a view of S. Maria Novella. 

*3 The Birth of the Baptist. 

One of the best of the series. The figure of the 
Virgin, obviously a portrait, is of the greatest beauty. 

The Birth of fhe Baptist 
Ghirlandaio. S. Maria Novella. 

The composition recalls that of Antonio Pollaiuolo in 
his relief of the Silver Altar. 

4 The Naming of the Child. 

These four scenes are by Domenico himself, 
above are chiefly the work of assistants. 


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5 The Preaching of the Baptist , 

6 The Baptism of Christ. 

7 The Feast of Herod. 

All are described by Vasari. (Vas. iii. 267-268.) 

Detail from the Birth of the Baptist 
Ghirlandaio. S. Maria Novella. 

*I (Left Wall.) The Expulsion of Joachim from the 

" In this scene are four men portrayed from life in 
the part towards the window ; one— he who is old and 
shaven and wears a red hood — is Alesso Baldovinetti, 
Domenico's master in fainting and mosaic.'" (More 
probably Tommaso Ghirlandaio, Domenico's father.) 
" 7he other without a cap, with his hand on his hip, 
wearing a red mantle and blue doublet, is Domenico 
himself, master of that work, drawn in a mirror by his 

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oum hand. He who has a mass of black hair with 
thick lipSy is Bastiano da S. Gemignano, his disciple 
and brothet'in-law " (Bastiano Mainardi, who assisted 

The Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple 
Ghirlandaio, S. Maria Novella. 

him in the frescoes), " and the other turning his hack, 
with a cap on his head, is his brother, David Ghirlandaio, 
the painter. All of which those who knew them say 
to be most like and true to nature."*^ (Vas. iii. 263.) 

*2 The Birth of the Virgin, 

One of the best of the series. 

" In the second scene is the Birth of Our Lady^ 
painted with great care ; and among other noteworthy 
things there is a window in perspective giving light to 
the room which deceives the observer. Besides this, 
while S. Anna is in bed and certain ladies visit her, 
some women wash the Madonna with great care, some 

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pouring water, some preparing the bandages, some doing 
one service, some another ; and while each attends to 
his own, a woman holds that child in her arms and 

The j Birth of the Virgin 
Ghirlandaio. S, Maria Novella. 

smiling makes it laugh, with a womanly grace worthy 
of such a workP (Vas. iii. 263.) 

In the Uffizi is a study of the servant pouring water 
into the bath. Inscribed on the wall at the back: 


3 The Presentation in the Temple. 

4 The Marriage of the Virgin. 

5 The Adoration of the Magi, 

6 The Murder of the Innocents, 

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7 The Death of the Virgin. 

All these five are by assistants, two of them much 
damaged by damp. 

(Window Wall.) In the arch above is the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin. Below, on the right, the Death of 
Peter Martyr and the Departure of the Baptist for the 
Desert. Below, kneeling beneath a portico in a land- 
scape, is * the kneeling figure of Francesca Pitti, wife 
of Giovanni Tornabuoni, an interesting portrait, but 
not painted from life, as she died eight years before. 
Left is S. Francis before the Sultan, the Annuncia- 
tion, and * the kneeling figure of the donor, Giovanni 
Tornabuoni. The designs of the windows have been 
attributed to Filippino Lippi, but seem to be by Ghir- 
landaio himself. The whole series of frescoes is at 
present undergoing restoration. 

The original altar-piece was also by Domenico, but 
it was left incomplete at his death and was finished by 
his brothers David and Benedetto, and Granacci. It 
was a Triptych painted on both sides, and represented 
on the front the Assumption of the Virgin, with S. 
Dominic, the Magdalen, the Archangel Michael, and 
the Baptist in the centre, and on the wings SS. 
Lorenzo and Catherine of Siena. These paintings 
were sold to Ludwig of Bavaria in 1804, and are now 
in the Munich Gallery (Nos. loii, 1012, and 1013). 
On the back was the Resurrection, with SS. Antonio 
and Vincenzo Ferreri, the two Saints being the work 
of Granacci. This was sold in 1809, and is now in 
the Berlin Gallery. 

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Strozzi Chapel 

(Inside Vault, below.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. 

The Entombmentj with Saints on either side, 


The Last Judgment, Finished 1357. FR. 

" He painted in fresco the Chapel of the Strozzi, 
which is near the door of the Sacristy and of the hell 
tower y in company with Bernardo his brother ; " (Vasari 
mistook the abbreviation Nardo, really Leonardo) 
" in which chapel . , . he painted on one wall the 
Glory of Paradise with all the Saints and with various 
costumes and decorations of the time. On the other he 
painted the Inferno with the bolgie, circles, and other 
things described by Dante, of whose works Andrea was 
most studious. "^^ (Vas. i. 595.) 

The chapel is dedicated to S. Thomas Aquinas. 
The frescoes were finished 1357. 

♦(Altar Wall.) The Last Judgment. 

Above is the Almighty with the Angels sounding the 
trumpets. Left, kneels the Virgin with the Apostles 
and Saints, and below an Angel assists the dead to 
rise from the tombs. Right, a devil drags away the 

.*(Left Wall.) Paradise. 

At the top Christ crowns the Virgin, surrounded by a 
crowd of Saints and Angels, and below stand the 
Blest, whose faces have mostly the individuality of 

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portraits. A figure in red to the right seems intended 
for Dante. The innovation and progress made by 

Orcagna. S. Maria Novella. 

Orcagna in space-filling, on the divided scenes of the 
Giottesques, is remarkable. Some of the figures have 
great beauty. All are, however, much repainted. 

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(Right Wall.) The Inferno. 

The composition follows closely the Dantesque coo- 
ceptioD. It is the work of Leonardo Orcagna, and is 
much inferior to the Paradise. 

The frescoes were entirely repainted in the XVIII 
century, and probably little but composition and out- 
lines remain of the original work. 

*(On Altar.) ANDREA ORCAGNA. Christ 
Enthroned with Saints. 1 35 7. T.W. 

This and the frescoes are the only, surviving painted 
work of Orcagna. In the centre Christ, with Saints 
on either side, gives the Keys to S. Peter, who kneels 
in the foreground, and a Book to S. Thomas Aquinas, 
whom the Virgin presents. These two figures, solidly 
modelled and true to life, break up the conventional 
line of isolated figures usual in such works. In the 
Predella are three scenes. A Saint in ecstasy, the 
Apostles on the Sea of Nazareth, and the death of 
a Saint. On the frame is inscribed : anni domini 


(Over Door leading to Campanile.) SCH. OF 
GIOTTO. The Coronation of the Virgin, 

It is attributed to Buffalmacco, but is so completely 
repainted that any attribution is impossible. 

Of other paintings formerly in the Church, Vasari 
gives the following notice : Fra Angelico " fainted in 
fresco on the tramezzo, near the door opposite the Choir 
of 5. Domenico, 5. Catherine of Siena^ and S. Peter 
Martyr, and some small scenes in the Chapel of the 
Coro^nation of Our Lady in the said tramezzoJ^ (Vas 
ii. 507.) 

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In the right aisle Giottino frescoed the Chapel of 
S. Lorenzo with pictures of SS. Cosimo and Damiano. 
(Vas. i. 625.) Stefano del Ponte painted a chapel 
with the scene of Lucifer cast out of Heaven. He 
left it unfinished, and in Vasari's time it was already 
much damaged. (Vas. i. 449.) 

In the Sacristy is an interesting painting of the 
XV century, representing Christ and the Virgin with 
Dominican monks below, part of a Triptych. 

Old Cloister 

(Entrance to the Right of the Strozzi Chapel) 

The old cloister and burial-ground has been frescoed 
entirely by pupils of Giotto, but few of the paintings 
remain, and such as are visible are much repainted. 
At the end is a fragment of a Crucifixion, and on the 
wall at the foot of the steps are the frescoes attri- 
buted by Ruskin to Giotto with exaggerated praise. 
But though not by Giotto himself, and lacking his 
fme composition and solid modelling, they have much 
charm. They represent scenes in the life of the 
Virgin : The Annunciation to Joachim of the Birth 
of a Child, the Meeting of Joachim and Anna, the 
Birth of the Virgin, and the Presentation in the 
Temple. On the pilasters are figures of Saints. In 
the chapel beyond are scenes from the life of Christ 
nearly obliterated, the Crucifixion only being distin- 

In a small chapel to the right are some good and 
interesting frescoes. Over the Altar the Crucifixion, 
by the painter of the Spanish chapel. On the left 
wall the Nativity, of the school of Giotto, painted 
with much originality. The Virgin is leaning over 
the manger, and to the left are the Shepherds, with 
dogs jumping on the manger, very true to life. In 
the vaulting four Prophets. 

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Chiostro Verde 

The Chiostro Verde, so-called because the frescoes 
are executed in terra- verde, is painted with scenes 
from the Old Testament, those on the north and east 
wall by Dello, those on the south by Paolo Uccello 
and his assistants. Two only, or at the most three, 
are by his own hand. Each arch is divided horizon- 
tally, and has two scenes in each division. Beginning 
on the side near the old cloister the first is the Crea- 
tion of Beasts and of Adam, and below, the Creation 
of Eve and the Fall of Adam. The first is by an 
assistant, but the second, though in too damaged a 
state to admit of definite judgment, may be by Paolo 
himself. The head of Lilith has much resemblance 
to his style, and is well modelled. All are attributed 
by Vasari to Paolo himself. 

" ^he first shows the creation of the animals ^ with 
various and infinite number of water beasts^ animals^ 
and birds. And because he was very fanciful and 
greatly delighted to draw animals well, he showed in 
some lions which would bite each other, the arrogance 
that is in them, and in some stags and does their swift- 
ness and timidity ; besides which there are birds and 
fish with most natural feathers and scales. He fainted 
there the Creation of Man and of Woman and their 
sin, in beautiful fashion, and in this he delighted to 
'paint the trees in colour."*^ (Vas. ii. 209?) 

The Expulsion from Eden and Adam and Eve 
toiling, BeloWj the Sacrifice of Abel and his 

The first is by an assistant, the second is too damaged 
to allow of attribution, being nearly effaced. 

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3 The Building of the Ark, BeloWy the Beasts 
entering the Ark. 

Much damaged, but enough remains to show that it is 
not by Paolo himself. 

**4 The Flood, Be low y the Covenant with Noah 
' and the Drunkenness of Noah. 

These are both by Paolo himself. In the first on 
either side is seen the Ark in admirable perspective, 
stretching away into the distance like some great city 
wall. To it cling drowning figures. In the fore- 
ground others are trying to save themselves by various 
devices treated with a touch of humour. One stands 
in a kind of tub, another has put round his neck, like 
a modern life-preserver, the head-dress of a lady. To 
the right stands a stately old man. 

" In the same cloister he fainted the Flood with the 
ark of Noah, and in it with much fatience, art, and 
diligence he painted the dead, the tempest, the jury of 
the winds, the lightning, the breaking of the trees, and 
the fear of the people, so that no more could be said. 
And in perspective he painted a dead man foreshortened, 
from whom a raven pecks the eyes, and a drowned child 
whose body filed with water makes a great curve. He 
showed there also different human emotions, as the dis- 
regard of the flood in two fighting on horseback, and 
the extreme fear of death in^a woman and man who 
bestride a buffalo. ..." (Vas. ii. 210.) 

Most of these details can no longer be distinguished, 
but the swollen body of the child is seen to the right 
beneath the Ark, and is admirably drawn. The fresco 
has recently been detached from the wall and entirely 
repainted, in such a manner that the indications of distant 
scenery which could formerly be traced have vanished. 

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the repainter having filled in the background in one 
uniform tone. 

The Covenant of God with Noah and the Drunken- 
ness are both nearly effaced in the lower part. On 
the left the Almighty, curiously foreshortened, hurJs 
himself towards the assembled family of Noah with 
the force of a thunderbolt. The rainbow of the cove- 
nant surrounds him. Right is the foreshortened figure 
of the prostrate Noah, hardly distinguishable, over 
whom Shem and Japhet spread a mantle. Beneath a 
pergola stands Ham, a superb figure, pointing with a 
noble gesture to the body. 

" He fainted also the drunkenness of Noah, with the 
contempt of Ham his son, in whom he portrayed his 
friend Dello, Florentine painter and sculptor, and Shem 
and Japhet, his other sons, who cover him. . . . He 
painted also in perspective a cask which turns each 
way, held to he very fine, and a pergola covered with 
grapes whose planks of planed wood diminish to a point, 
, , , He painted besides the sacrifice of the opened ark 
drawn in perspective, . . . where the birds rest com- 
fortably, which are seen to issue forth • flying, finely 
foreshortened ; and in the air is seen God the Father, 
who appears above the sacrifice ofered by Noah and 
his sons, and this, of all the figures painted by Paulo in 
this work, is the most difficult, because he flies with his 
head foreshortened towards the wall with so much force 
that it seems as though the substance of that figure 
pierces and breaks it through. And besides Noah has 
around him an infinite number of most beautiful animals. 
In fine he gave to the whole work so much mellowness 
and grace that it is without comparison superior to all 
his other works^^ (Vas. ii. 210.) 

The other frescoes on this wall are almost totally 
effaced. Those on the other side of the cloister arc 
by another hand, one of them being attributed by 
Vasari to Dello. They represent the history of Jacob. 

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^^ Dello fainted in fresco in an angle of the cloister 
in terra-verde the story of Isaac where he gives his 
blessing to Esau,^^ (Vas. ii. 150.) 

They have all been recently completely repainted. 

(Over Entrance to large Cloister.) STEFANO 
DEL PONTE(?) The Crucifixion. FR. 

" He fainted in the first cloister of S, Maria Novella 
, . . a Crucifixion which has since been badly restored 
by other fainters" (Vas. i. 449.) 

Since Vasari's time it has been again repainted, and 
has almost lost its trecento character. At the present 
time it is again being repainted. 

(On Altar near.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

Madonna Enthroned with Saints, T.w. 

Polyptych of Gothic form set in a square frame of 
later date, the angles being filled in with paintings of 
the XVI century. 

(Above Altar.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. Madonna. 


Much repainted and surrounded by work of the 
XVII century. 

(Near Entrance to Church.) STEFANO DEL 
PO NTE ( ?) S. Thomas Aquinas and the 
Genealogical Tree of the Dominicans. FR. 

" He fainted in the first cloister of S. Maria Novella 
a S. Thomas Aquinas near a door.** (Vas. i. 449.) 
Only a fragment remains. 

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Spanish Chapel 

The Spanish Chapel, formerly the Chapter-house, 
was presented by Cosimo I. in 1566 to the Spanish 
followers of Eleonora of Toledo, from whom it took 
its name. It was begun in 1350, and the frescoes 
probably date from a little later. Vasari attributes 
that on the right wall to Simone Martini and the rest 
to Taddeo Gaddi. The authorship is much disputed. 
They have been given to Antonio Veneziano and to 
Andrea da Firenze. All that can be said with 
certainty is that they show the influence of the 
Sienese and Florentine schools. They are com- 
pletely repainted, but retain much beauty of colour. 

*(Left Wall.) The Triumph of S. Thomas Aquinas, 
Given by Vasari to Taddeo Gaddi. 

The Triumph of S. Thomas Aquinas 
(Detail of Fresco, Spanish Chapel) S. Maria Novella. 

" On the wall helozv are the seven Sciences with their 
nameSf and with figures beneath suitable to each. 

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Grammar, in the dress of a woman with a portal teaching 
a child, has seated beneath her the writer Donato, 
After Grammar follows Rhetoric, and at her feet a 
figure holding a hook with two hands, and a third hand 
he draws from beneath his mantle and holds near his 
mouth. Logic has the serpent in her hand beneath a 
veil, and at her feet Zeno who reads. Arithmetic holds 
the tables of the alphabet, and beneath her is seated the 

The Triumph of S. Thomas Aquinas 
(Detail of Fresco, Spanish Chapel) S. Maria Novella. 

inventor Abraham. Music has musical instruments, 
and beneath her is seated Tubal Cain, who strikes with 
two hammers on an anvil and listens attentively to the 
sound. Geometry has the square and compasses, and 
below Euclid. Astrology has the heavenly globe in her 
hand, and beneath her feet Atlantis. On the other side 
are seated seven Theological Sciences, and each has 
beneath her that state and condition of man suitable to 
her. pope, emperor, kings, cardinals, dukes, bishops, 
marquises, and others ; and the face of the Pope is the 
portrait of Clement V . In the centre higher up is 

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S. Thomas Aquinas^ who was adorned with all the said 
Sciences, treading beneath his feet some heretics, Arius, 
Sabellias, and Awerrhoes, and around him are Moses, 
Paul, John the Evangelist, and other figures, and above 
them the four Cardinal and three Theological Virtues** 
(Vas. i. 581.) 

As will be seen, Vasari's descriptioo is not quite 
correct. The identity of the fourteen female figures 
and those below is disputed, but the names most 
generally accepted are as follows. Beginning on the 
right. Grammar with Donatus, Rhetoric with Cicero, 
Logic with Aristotle, Music with Tubal Cain, Astro- 
nomy with Zoroaster or Ptolemy, Geometry with 
Euclid, Arithmetic with Pythagoras, Dogmatic Theo- 
logy with S. Augustine, Mystic Theology with S. 
Basil, Moral Philosophy with John of Damascus, 
Contemplative Theology with S. Jerome, Theology 
with Pietro Lombardi, Canonical Law with Innocent 
III., Civil Law with Justinian. In the pinnacle of 
each throne is a medallion with other appropriate 

*(Right Wall.) The Triumph of the Church 

Given by Vasari to Simone Martini. 

" He fainted the Religion and Order of S. Domenico 
fighting against the heretics, symbolised by wolves, 
which assail some sheep, which are defended by dogs 
spotted with white and black, and the wolves repulsed 
and killed.** (The dogs symbolise the Dominicans — 
a play on the name.) " There are besides some heretics, 
who, convinced in the dispute, tear their books, and, 
repentant, confess themselves ; and thus the souls pass 
to the gates of Paradise, where are many small figures 
doing different things. In Heaven is seen the glory of 
the Saints and Jesus Christ, and in the world below 

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20 1 

are the 'pleasures and vain delights^ in human -figureSy 
chiefiy of women seated, among which is Madonna 
Laura of Petrarca, portrayed from life, clad in green, 
with a little flame of fire between her breast and throat.''^ 
(Milanesi considers this figure to represent sensual 
pleasure.) " Jhere is besides the Church of Christ, 
and guarding it, the Pope, the Emperor, Kings, Cardinals, 
Bishops, and all the Christian Princes ; and among 

Triumph of the Church Militant 
(Detail of Fresco, Spanish Chapel) S. Maria Novella. 

them, near a knight of Rhodes^ Messer Francesco 
Petrarca, also portrayed from life. . . . For the Church 
Universal he painted the Church of 5. Maria del Fiore, 
not as it is to-day but as it was in the model and design 
left by the architect Arnolfo in the Opera, as a guide 
to those who had to continue the building after him, 
of which model, through the carelessness of the Operai 
of S. Maria del Fiore, no memory would exist if Simone 
had not left it painted in this work.^^ (Vas. i. 550.) 
" He painted also besides Petrarch and Madonna Laura, 

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Cimabuey the architect Lapo, Amolfo his son, and 
Simone himself, and in the person of the Pope, Bene- 
dict XL of ^reviso, preaching friar, . . . and near to 
him Cardinal Niccola of Prato.*^ (Vas. i. 559.) 

These names canoot be accepted, and only two of 
the figures may, with any semblance of probability, be 
identified — the Bishop to the left of the Pope in the 
foreground, possibly Agnolo Acciaiuolo, Bishop of 
Florence, and the Knight in the short tunic on the 
other side, who may be, judging by his French 
costume, Walter de Brienne, Duke of Athens. 

*( Altar Wall.) The Way to Calvary^ the Crucifixion^ 
and the Descent into Limbo, 

Given by Vasari to Simone Martini. 

" On the third wall he painted the Passion of Christ, 
who issuing from Jerusalem with the Cross on his 
shoulder, goes up to Mount Calvary, followed by a great 
crowd ; where arrived, he is seen raised on the Cross 
between the thieves. . . . I will not mention the 
numerous horses which are there, the throwing of the 
dice for the garment of Christ, the release from Limbo 
of the Holy Fathers, and all the other well-considered, 
inventions, which seem to be, not by a master of that 
date but by a most excellent modern ; seeing that, 
taking the walls as one, he has painted, each with most 
careful observation, various scenes upon a mountain, and 
has not divided them with decorations between scene 
and scene, as used to do the old and many modem 
masters, placing the earth upon the sky four or five 
times. ^' (Vas. i. 551.) 

This criticism of Vasari is much to the point. The 
space-filling is admirable, and a great advance on the 
divided scenes of the early Giottesques. 

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(Entrance Wall.) The Martyrdom of Peter Martyr. 
Pieta. The Resuscitation of a Woman^ and 
Fragments of other Frescoes, 

The frescoes on this wall are in a state of great 

PLAUTILLA NELLI. Cenacolo. o.w. 

This picture was painted by Plautilla Nelli, Prioress 
of the Convent of S. Catherine of Siena, Florence, 
for the Refectory of her convent. ( Vas. v. 79. ) 

(Vaulting.) S. Peter walking on the Sea, The 
Resurrection, Pentecost, The Ascension, 

Given by Vasari to Taddeo Gaddi, and described by 
him at great length. (Vas. i. 581.) 


(Entrance in 12 Via della Scala.) 

(Chapel.) SPINELLO (?) Scenes from the Passion 
of Christ, FR. 

On first wall, **Noli me Tangere/* the Entombment, 
and the Crucifixion. 

On second wall, the Way to Calvary, the Flagella- 
tion, and ** Ecce Homo." 

On third wall, cut through by the window, Christ 
before Caiaphas, and S. Peter cutting off the Soldier's 

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On the fourth wall, Christ washing the Disciples' 
Feet, the Last Supper, and Christ with the Apostles. 

Id the rooms beyond are some paintings of the 
XV and XVI centuries. 


The Church of S. Miniato is one of the oldest in 
Tuscany. It is said that S. Miniato, King of 
Armenia, founded a hermitage on the spot and lived 
there till his martyrdom by Decius outside the Porta 
alia Croce, and that a church already existed in the 
days of Charlemagne. The present basilica is said 
to have been begun in 1013 by Bishop Alibrando, 
aided by the Emperor S. Henry and Cunegonda his 
wife. It belonged to the Benedictines, and was ceded 
to the Olivetans by Gregory XI. in 1373. During 
the siege of Florence it was the citadel of the 
besieging forces, and was fortified by Michelangelo. 
The monastery was suppressed by Cosimo I., who 
turned it into a barrack for his Spanish troops. The 
church is one of the best examples of Tuscan- 
Romanesque architecture in existence. It has been 
repeatedly restored, and was thoroughly renovated in 
i860. Recently it has undergone fresh restoration, 
when the frescoes in the aisle were completely re- 
painted. Over the entrance is a mosaic representing 
the Virgin between two Angels, originally of the 

XIII century. It was restored in 1388 by a certain 
Zaccheria d' Andrea, and again in 1402 by Filippo 
di Corso, then by Alesso Baldovinetti in 14559 and 
again in 148 1. It is now again being restored. 

Right Aisle 

The wall is covered with fragments of frescoes of the 

XIV century, which have been completely repainted. 

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The first represents the Virgin enthroned with six 
Saints, and is attributed to Paolo di Stefano, but in 
its present state is entirely modern. Beyond are 
single figures of Saints in architectural setting, more 
or less dilapidated and repainted. 

Left Aisle 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Madonna in Glory 
with Saints, fr. 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Crucifixion 
with Saints. FR. 

Both frescoes are detached from the wall. 

Chapel of the Cardinal of Portugal 

This chapel was commissioned by Bishop Alvaro in 
1 46 1 to commemorate the death of Prince Jacopo, 
nephew of Alfonso, King of Portugal, Cardinal of 
S. Eustachio, Archbishop of Lisbon, who, passing 
through Florence on a papal mission from Rome, 
died there in 1459, ^^ '^^ ^S^ °^ twenty-six. It was 
built from designs by Antonio Rossellino, by whom 
is also the tomb of the Cardinal. The roof is covered 
with glazed terra- cotta decorations by Luca and 
Andrea della Robbia. The commission for the fres- 
coes must have been given to Alesso Baldovinetti, by 
whom are the entire paintings, with the exception of 
the Altar wall. They are in a state of great dilapida- 
tion, due to the unfortunate method of fresco employed 
by Alesso, a mixture of tempera and oil, painted on 
the dry plaster — strictly speaking not fresco at all. 

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The colour has lo great part flaked off, but fortunately 
the paintings have not been subjected to the same 
injudicious restoration as the other frescoes in the 

On the angles of the arch outside, beneath the 
stemma of the Cardinal, are two Prophets holding 
scrolls, and inside, on either side of the windows, are 
seated Evangelists and Fathers of the Church, two 

The Annunciation 
Alesso Baldovinetti, S, Miniato. 

in each arch. Below the architrave is a frieze com- 
posed of the different stemmi of the Cardinal, and in 
the angles of the arches below are Prophets holding 
scrolls. On the left wall, above the throne of coloured 
marbles, carrying out the architecture in the marble 
bench, is ** a beautiful Annunciation by Alesso Bal- 
dovinetti, one of his finest works. It is better pre- 
served than the rest, being painted on a panel fixed 
to the wall. At one end of a low bench is seated the 
Virgin, with a brocade curtain behind her, a noble 
figure of great beauty ; at the other extremity kneels 

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the Archangel in brocade robes, with fair hair arranged 
in symmetrical curls. Over the marble parapet are 
cypresses seen against the sky. The effect is some- 
what spoiled by the gold framework added later. 
The fresco is erroneously attributed by Vasari to 
Piero Pollaiuolo, as also are the prophets in the arches. 
(Vas. iii. 291.) 


Two Angels withdrawing Curtains. FR. 

Upon the Altar was originally the painting by An- 
tonio and Piero Pollaiuolo representing the patron Saints 
of the Cardinal, SS. James, Vincent, and Eustace, now 
in the Uffizi, No. 1301. The altar-piece has been 
replaced by a worthless painting of the XVII century, 
but the original frame remains, and above it are fres- 
coed two superb Angels by Antonio Pollaiuolo, one 
of his best and most characteristic works. Unfortu- 
nately they are painted with the same medium as 
Baldovinetti's, so that they are much damaged, and 
in parts nearly effaced. They are represented as 
standing upon the frame withdrawing curtains to ex- 
pose the picture, and are painted with a realism so 
deceptive that their bodies seem actually to project 
beyond the wall into the chapel, as though in free 
relief. They wear short tunics, which leave their 
muscular limbs bare, and, except for their wings, have 
nothing in common with the traditional angel, re- 
sembling rather young athletes. 

Chapel of the Crucifix 

The Chapel of the Crucifix in the centre of the 
church was built by Michelozzo in 1448 at the com- 
mission of Piero de' Medici, to enshrine the famous 

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Cnicifix of S. GiovaDnt Gualberto, removed in 167 1 
to S. Trinita. The roof is decorated with glazed 
terra-cotu by Luca della Robbia. The Tabernacle, 
which contained the Crucifix, is still behind the Altar. 
It is painted with small scenes in compartments said 
to be by Spinello. They are too much repainted to 
make attribution easy. At the top is the Ascension, 
with the Archangel and Virgin of the Annunciation 
on either side, and below, the Flagellation and the 
Resurrection. Beneath are two large figures of S. 
Miniato and S. Giovanni Gualberto, and four other 
scenes — " Ecce Homo," the Way to Calvary, Pente- 
cost, and Christ washing the Disciples' Feet. 


The crypt was formerly covered with frescoes, walls 
as well as vaulting, but of these only fragments re- 
main. Near the window to the right is a life-sized 
figure of Tobias and the Archangel of the XV cen- 
tury. In the vaulting are traces of fresco, but those 
within the railings of the Altar have been entirely 


(Altar right of Apse.) FLOR. SCH. XIV 
CENT. S. Giovanni Gualberto, T.w. 

The Saint stands in monk's robes, with the crutch of 
the Vallombrosan Order and the Crucifix, a small donor 
kneeling at his feet. In the pinnacle, a medallion with 
the Almighty. In the Predella, three scenes from his 

In the apse is a mosaic, much restored. In the 
centre a colossal figure of Christ, with the Virgin and 
S. Miniato on either side, and below, the Evangelists 
in their symbolic forms. Beneath is the date anno 

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DNi Mccxcvii. It was restored by Alesso Baldovbetti 
in 1491, and again in recent times. 

(Over Door of Campanile.) FLOR. SCH. XIV 
CENT. Pieti. FR. 

(At Top of Stairs.) SCH. OF ANDREA DAL 
CASTAGNO. S.Jerome. FR. 

Entirely repainted. 


The Sacristy was built at the cost of Benedetto di 
Nerozzo Alberti in 1387. The frescoes are said to 
be the masterpiece of Spinello, but have been so 
completely overpainted as to be practically modern. 
Nothing but the composition remains of the original 
work. In the vaulting are four full-length figures of 
the Evangelists with their symbols, and on each of 
the four walls are four scenes from the life of S. 

" Called to Florence by Don Jacofo of Jrezzo, Abbot 
of S, Miniato in Monte, of the order of Monte Oliveto, 
Spinello painted in the roof and on the four walls of 
the Sacristy of that monastery, besides the Altarfiece 
in tempera, many scenes from the life of S, Benedict 
in fresco, with great facility and vivacity of colouring,'*'* 
(Vas. i. 683.) 

The frescoes were really commissioned by Bene- 
detto degli Albertiy who, when sent into exile, added 
a codicil to his testament in 1387 ordering their com- 

(ist Wall.) I. S. Benedict takes the monastic 
habit. 2. S. Benedict at table with his monks. 
3. He resuscitates a monk crushed by the devil, 




who threw down the wall of the church he was build- 
ing. 4. He exorcises the devil from a monk tempted 
to renounce the monastic life. 

(2nd Wall.) I. S. Benedict bids farewell to his 
family. 2. He miraculously, mends a dish which 
has been broken. 3. Totila, King of the Goths, 
kneels before him. 4. The death of the Saint. 

(3rd Wall.) I. S. Benedict quits the convent. 

2. He receives the neophytes Placidus and Mauro. 

3. He exorcises the devil seated on a stone to prevent 
the building of the church. 4. He recognises the 
groom sent by Totila in his own dress to prove his 

(4th Wall.) I. S. Benedict, tempted by the flesh, 
throws himself among thorns. 2. He is created 
Abbot, and discovers miraculously the attempt of his 
enemies to poison him. 3. He recovers a hatchet 
dropped in the water he had miraculously caused to 
flow. 4. He shows a monk where to find the body 
of Placidus fallen into the river. 

In the tympanum of the door on the left is a Piet^ 
of the XV century, entirely repainted. 

Vasari records that in the cloister, which no longer 
exists, Paolo Uccello painted, partly in terra-verde^ 
partly in colour, scenes from the lives of some Saints, 
and relates at length how he left the work half 
finished because the monks gave him nothing to eat 
but cheese, and would only return on condition that 
he received better fare. (Vas. ii. 207.) 

The convent adjoining was built in 1234 by Andrea 
de' Mozzi, Bishop of Florence, as his palace, but was 
converted by the Benedictines into a convent During 
the siege of Florence it was used as a barrack, and 
later during the plague as a la%aretto. 

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The. Convent of Monte Oliveto was founded by the 
Olivetan monks in 1334* The church, dedicated to 
S. Bartolommeo, was built in 1472, but underwent 
complete restoration in the early part of the XVIII 
century. The convent was suppressed in 1867 and 
converted to a military hospital for convalescents. 

In the bedroom of the priest, formerly part of the Re- 
fectory, was discovered in i890,beneath the whitewash, 
a fragment of * an important fresco by Sodoma, repre- 
senting the Last Supper. Of this work Vasari wrote : — 

" Arrived in Florence he was commissioned to faints 
by a monk of the Brandolini family, abbot of the 
Monastery of Monte Oliveto outside the Porta S. Friano " 
(S. Frediano) " some pictures in fresco on the walls of the 
refectory. But because through carelessness he did them 
without study, they turned out so that he was bantered 
and mocked for his folly by those who exfected of him 
some extraordinary work^ (Vas. vi. 589.) 

This criticism of a work so impressive and noble is 
most unjust. Part of it only remains, but this ranks 
among his best works. Christ is seated at a long 
table with S. John leaning on his shoulder, the two 
heads, half effaced, retaining their fine outline and 
beauty of expression. Left is S. Peter in a state 
of good preservation, and to the right fragments of 
three other Apostles. The noblest figure is, how- 
ever, that of Judas, seated alone on the near side of 
the table, half turning to the spectator. It is in 
better condition than the rest ; the head is finely 
modelled and of great beauty and dignity. The 
draperies are broadly and plastically treated, and the 
whole work shows a technical excellence that proves it 
to date from his best time. R. H. Cust in his work 
on Sodoma dates it between 1535 and 1 540 (see Giov. 

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j4nt. Bazzif London, 1906, p. 123). The left part 

of the fresco is entirely 

For the church, Ver- 
rocchio painted the An- 
nunciation attributed to 
Leonardo, now in the 
Uffizi, No. 1288. 

In the subterranean 
church was formerly the 
Resurrection by Raffael- 
lino del Garbo, now in the 
Accademia, No. 90, the 
frame of[ which is still on 
the Altar. It was com- 
missioned by the Capponi 
family, and Vasari tells 
how this frame was struck 
by lightning and all the gold destroyed, the painting 
escaping unhurt. (Vas. iv. 236.) In the same sub- 
terranean church was the Triptych with the Madonna 
and Saints, painted by Lorenzo Monaco in 14 10, now 
in the Uffizi, No. 41. 

Head of Judas 
Sodoma. Monte Oliveto. 


The Church of S. Niccolo was founded about 1000, 
and belonged to the monks of S. Miniato. It was 
later reconstructed, and in 1374 was included in the 
diocese of Florence. 

and the Virgin adoring the Almighty, T.w. 

An interesting small Polyptych, so much damaged 
and blackened that the subjects are almost indis- 

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tingutshable. In the centre the Virgin and Christ 
kneel on a rainbow and adore the Almighty above. 
Right are SS. Cosimo and Damiano and S. George. 
Left a scene, the subject of which is indistinguishable, 
and a Bishop. 

SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Madonna adoring 
the Christ Child, t.w. 

donna, T.w. 

A good painting much ruined. Part of an altar-piece. 



Madonna giving her Girdle to 5. Thomas, FR. 

A fine work. The Virgin, surrounded by Angels, 
hovers over the tomb— a marble sarcophagus bound at 
the corners with metal acanthus leaves. To the left 
kneels S. Thomas, and to the right lies a fawn, very 
true to life. In the background stretches the Arno 
Valley, a beautiful and characteristic landscape, seen 
from above Florence with the city on the right. 
The tomb is dated mccccl, but this is obviously 
spurious, having been daubed in by some modern 
restorer. It is, however, probably an early work of 
the Master. 

(On Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Ma- 

donna and^Saints, T.w. 

A poor painting, attributed by Milanesi to Neri di 
Bicci. It bears the arms of the Quaratesi family, for 
whom it was painted. 

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NERI DI BICCL Madonna and Six Saints. 
1488. T.W. 

A fine work on a gold background, painted for the 
High Altar of the church. 

NERI DI BICCI. The Trinity, t.w. 

On either side are SS. Stephen and Lorenzo, and 
kneeling in the foreground S. Francis and the Baptist. 
For this church Masaccio painted on the trame%%Oy 
now destroyed, an Annunciation in tempera on wood, 
praised by Vasari for its fine perspective. Gentile da 
Fabriano painted for the High Altar, at the com- 
mission of the Quaratesi family, the picture represent- 
ing the Madonna and four Saints, the side panels of 
which are now in the Uffizi, No. 1310, the central 
panel with the Madonna in the collection of the King 
at Windsor. (Vas. iii. 7.) 


The Church of Ognissanti was originally dedicated to 
S. Salvadore. It belonged to the Padri Umiliati, a 
Milanese fraternity which settled in Florence in 1251. 
After the siege they were expelled from Florence and 
the convent made over to the Franciscans of the 
Minori Osservanti, by whom it was almost entirely 
rebuilt in 1627. The facade is modern, copied fi*om a 
XVII century design. The interior is decorated in 
baroque style, and little of the original building re- 
mains but the Cappella Gondi, now dismantled, and 
the Sacristy. A few frescoes have been recently 

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(Left of Entrance.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. The 

Annunciation. FR. 

Part ofthe original decoration discovered beneath a XVII 
century altar-piece. Below the two figures is the donor. 

Right Aisle 


The Deposition. Above ^ the Madonna of 
Mercy protecting the Vespucci family. FR. 

Discovered behind an altar-piece by Matteo Rosselli 
in 1898. Mentioned by Vasari as being among his 
earliest works. 

" His first 'paintings were in the Chapel of the 
Vespucci in Ognissanti, where is a dead Christ and 
some Saints y and in the arch above a Misericordia^ in 
which is the portrait of Amerigo Vespucci^ who made 
the navigation of the Indies, ^^ (Vas. iii. 255.) 

Boturi records that in modernising the Chapel of 
the Vespucci, ceded to the Baldovinetti in 1616, the 
fresco was whitewashed, but it was really only 
covered by the altar-piece. The Deposition is very 
much repainted. At the foot ofthe Cross, set against 
a distant landscape, Joseph of Arimathea, the Virgin, 
and Magdalen support the body of Christ, which is 
awkwardly posed. Six other Saints stand round. 
On either side are fragments of two other figures in 
feigned niches. Above in the arch the Madonna of 
Mercy spreads her mantle over the family of the 
Vespucci. This painting is better executed. The 
portraits which may be identified are the following : — 
Amerigo Vespucci, the discoverer of America, is the 
youth with dark hair whose head is seen next the 
Madonna on the left. The old man in the fore- 
ground is probably his father Anastasio, donor of the 

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painting. The half-effaced monk behind may be his 
brother, Fra Antonio, a friend and follower of 
Savonarola ; and the young man between him and 
the Bishop, Guidantonio Vespucci, Ambassador to 
the Court of France, to whom Amerigo acted at one 
time as secretary. The lady kneeling below the 
Virgin's hand to the right may possibly be Simonetta 
Cattaneo, known as << La Bella Simonetta," married 
to a Vespucci, mistress of Giuliano de' Medici, since 
her features bear some resemblance to Pier di Cosimo's 
portrait of her as Cleopatra in the Museum of Chantilly. 

** BOTTICELLI. S. Augustine, fr. 

" In Ognissanti he fainted for the Vesfucci in fresco^ 
near the door of the tramezzo which leads to the Choir ^ 

a S. Agostino, in which 
he strove his utmost to 
surf ass all his contemn 
foraries, and farticu- 
larly Domenico Ghir- 
landaiowho had fainted 
a S, Girolamo on the 
other side ; which work 
was very highly f raised, 
he having shown in the 
head of the Saint that 
fro found meditation and 
most keen subtlety which 
exist only in thought- 
ful feofle absorbed con- 
stantly in the investi- 
gation of sublime and 
difficult things. This 
fainting was, in this 
year i6$^,removed from 
its flace safe and whole. ^^ (Vas. iii. 311.) 

S. Augustine 
Botticelli, Ognissanti, 

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The SaiDt is represented in his cope seated at a tabJe, 
inkpot in hand, meditating his work on the Trinity. 
The strenuous energy of his character is admirably 
rendered in the intellectual face and bony hands. 
In style it resembles most the " Fortezza " of the 
Uffizi painted in 1470, though Vasari places it later 
than the S. Jerome by Ghirlandaio opposite, which is 
dated 1480. 

Left Aisle 


The Coronation of the Virgin with below the 
Trinity, FR. 

Found beneath an altar-piece of the XVII century in 


1480. FR. 

" In the Church of the Ognissanti, in competition 
with Sandro di Botticello, he painted in fresco a 
S. Girolamo, which is now near the door leading to the 
choir ; around whom he painted an infinite number of 
instruments and books suitable to studious persons. This 
paintingy together with that of Sandro di Botticello^ 
the frati having to remove the choir from its place y was 
bound with irons and transported to the middle of the 
Church without damage^ in these very days of the second 
printing of the ' Lives' " (Vas. ill. 258.) 

It is dated 1480, and seems much repainted. It is 
not one of his best works, and offers a sharp contrast 
in the commonplace conception to the Saint of Botti- 
celli opposite. 

The cupola is painted by Giovanni da S. Giovanni, 
and is considered one of his best works. 

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SCH. OF TADDEO GADDI. The Crucifixion 
with the f^lrglriy the Evangelists and Saints. 


Completely repainted. 

SCH. OF GIOTTO. Crucifix, t.w. 

Removed here from the Cappella Goodi. It is 
attributed by Vasari to Giotto himself. 

" He fainted for the Frati Umiliati of Ognissanti in 
Florence a large wooden Crucifix^ from which Puccio 
Capanna, taking the design^ fainted many others for 
all over Italy, having much experience in the style of 
Giotto,'' (Vas. i. 396.) 

Vasari records several frescoes and altar-pieces 
painted for the Church by masters of the XIV century. 
Giotto frescoed a chapel and painted four altar-pieces. 
Of these all that survives is the large Madonna En- 
throned, now in the Accademia, No. 259. He 
mentions a small panel by Giotto on the tramezzo^ 
representing the Death of the Virgin, " surrounded by 
the Apostles, and a Christ who receives her soul in bis 
arms'' (Vas. i. 397). This panel having attracted 
notice by reason of the high praise given to it by Michel- 
angelo, was stolen from the church. Giotto frescoed 
" tf S. Cristofano and S, George, which from the 
damage of time had been spoiled, and through the 
ignorance of a Provost repainted by those who little 
understood their business. In the same church remains 
safe by the hand of Tommaso, the lunette that is over the 
door of the Sacristy, on which is a fresco of Our Lady 
with the Child in her arms " (Vas. i. 625). No trace 
remains of any of these paintings. 

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For the Sacristy Bernardo Daddi painted the altar- 
piece with the Madonna, SS. Matthew and Niccolo, 
now in the Uffizi, No. 26. According to Vasari, 
Taddeo Gaddi painted the altar-piece for the choir, 
which has been identified with the " Saints, Prophets, 
Patriarchs, Apostles, Virgins, and Martyrs" now in 
the Uffizi, No. 32, attributed to Giovanni da Milano 
(Vas. i. 584). It was discovered in fragments in the 
Cappella Gondi. Neri di Bicci painted in the chapel 
of the Lenzi scenes from the life of the Virgin, with 
portraits of himself and his father Bicci di Lorenzo in 
medallions. He painted also the altar-piece for the 
same chapel (Vas. ii. 38). 

The Cloister and Cenacolo 

The cloister is said to have been built from a design 
of Michelozzo, and is frescoed with scenes from the 
life of S. Francis by Giovanni da S. Giovanni, 
Ligozzo, and other XVII century painters. By 
Giovanni da S. Giovanni are the first four lunettes on 
the wall left of the refectory. 


Supper. 1480. FR. 

Mentioned without comment by Vasari (Vas. iii. 255). 
A fine composition resembling his Cenacolo in S. 
Marco. Over the table are arches open to the sky, 
with palms and lemon trees and wild ducks flying. 
On either side of the window-sill are perched a pea- 
cock and a dove. It is dated 1480. The figures 
are much and badly repainted, and little but the com- 
position remain of the original work. 

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On the walls are several fragments of fresco, &c., 
collected firom the church and convent, but all are so 
repainted as to have lost their original character. Those 
most worthy of attention are on the left wall. 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna with SS. 
Antonio and Catherine of Siena, 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The Magdalen at the 
foot of the Cross, 

FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. S. Thomas Aquinas 
and another Saint, 

FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Madonna Enthroned, 
with a Saint. 


The building was already occupied by the Operai del 
Duomo in the latter part of the XV century. In 
1822 many fragments of sculpture from the Duomo 
were deposited here, which were later removed to the 
Bargello and Uffizi. In 1885 the present large hall 
was built to contain the reconstructed Cantorie of 
Donatello and Luca della Robbia, and was opened to 
the public in 1891. Besides the Museum the building 
contains the offices of the architects of the Duomo, 
the archives of the Cathedral and Baptistery, &c. 
In the Hall of the Cantorie are several paintings taken 
from suppressed churches and convents. 

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(At the top of the Stairs.) BICCI DI LOR- 
ENZO. Two Heads of Apostles, 1440. 


Parts of fresco executed for the Duomo, and removed 
during the restoration of 1842. 

Hall of the Cantorie 

73 (Over Door.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 

The Decollation of the Baptist, T.W. 

Entirely repainted. 


Head of S,Xanobi, 1504. Mosaic. 

Executed in 1504 for the Chapel of S. Zanobi, 
Duomo, in competition with David Ghirlandaio. 

79 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. The Baptist, 

S, Zanobi, and S, Reparata. T.W. 

Much repainted. 

80 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. Santa Re- 

parata. t*w. 

Surrounded by four scenes from her Martyrdom, i. 
Decius orders melted lead to be poured on her head. 
2. She is burnt in the breasts. 3. She is placed in a 
furnace. 4. The decapitation of the Saint. Below 
are the Baptist and S. Zanobi. A poor work, 
entirely repainted. 

83 FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. S. Ivo rendering 
Justice to a Touth and a Maiden, t.w. 

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84 and 85 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. Four 
Scenes from the Life of S, Sebastian, T.w. 

Side panels of Triptych, of which No. 86 was the 

86 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. S. Sebastian. 


Centre panel of the foregoing. 


Two Pictures in Mosaic, 

Presented to the Church of S. Giovanni by Niccoletta 
de' Grioni, a Venetian, in 1394. She was the widow 
of a chamberlain of John Cantacuzeno, Emperor 
of Constantinople, and the mosaics were taken from 
the Chapel of the Imperial Palace when he was 
dethroned by Paleologus in 1354. 

89 ATT. TADDEO GADDL Madonna, with 

SS, Catherine and Zanobi, 1 334. t.w. 

An interesting work. The Virgin, in a square frame 
like a window, holds her hand to the kneeling donor, 
a nun. On the left is another small donor. Inscribed : 


90 FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. S, Catherine of 

Alexandria, t.w. 

She is enthroned with the three donors, Nofero 
Bischeri and his sons, at her feet, and around are 

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eight small scenes from her life. Above, SS. Bar- 
tholomew and John the Eyangelist. Inscribed : qvesti 
soNo NO (Noferi) bischeri messer b (Bartolommeo) 
E Gi (Giovanni) svoi figlivoli. One of the donors 
wears the dress of a knight of Malta. 

Standard^ with S, Agatha, 

Painted on both sides with the same figure, that of the 
XIV century evidently copied from the older work. 

♦♦ On either side of the hall are arranged in frames 
the embroideries executed from designs of Antonio 
Pollaiuolo from 1466 to 1480. There are twenty- 
seven scenes from the life of the Baptist, most of them 
in a good state of preservation. Not all are designed 
by himself. The best are marked with an asterisk. 
Beginning opposite the 
entrance : — 


Zaccharla chased 

from the Temple, 


The Visitation. 


The Birth of the 


The Naming of the 


The Baptist preaching 

to the Multitude. 

The Birth of the Baptist 

Antonio Pollaiuolo. 

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6 The Capture of the Baptist, 

7 The Baptist led to Prison. 

8 The Baptist in Prison. 

*9 The Decollation of the Baptist. 

*I0 Salome presenting the Head of the Baptist to 

II The Procession to the Tomb. 

12 The Entombment. 

On the opposite side : — 
*I The Feast of Herod. 

*2 The Baptist preaching before Herod. 

*3 The Baptist baptizing the Multitude. 

*4 The Annunciation to Zaccharia of the Birth of 
a Son. 

5 The Baptist announcing the Advent oj Christ. 
*6 The Dance of Salome. 
7 The Descent into Limbo. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


8 Christ baptizing the Baptist. 

9 The Meeting of Christ and the Baptist, 
*I0 The Meeting of the Baptist with Herod, 

1 1 The Baptist questioned by the Messengers of the 

High Priest, 

12 The Baptist Preaching. 

13 The Baptist rebuking Herod and Herodias. 

14 The Institution of Baptism, 

*I5 The Presentation of the Baptist in the Temple, 


The Church of S. Michele in Orte was built on the 
site of a corn market which was originally only a 
loggia of brick covered by a wooden roof. This was 
nearly entirely destroyed by fire in 1304. In 1336 
the Signoria ordered the loggia to be rebuilt on a 
grander scale, and had rooms erected over it for the 
storage of grain. The work was under the charge of 
the Arte della Seta. The design is attributed to 
Taddeo Gaddi, but is more probably the work of 
Francesco Talenti, chief architect of the Duomo. It 
was continued by his son Simone. (See Milanesi, 
Vas. i. 590, &c.) Villani narrates that in 1292 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


" great and of en miracles began to be performed by a 
figure of Santa Maria painted on a pilaster in the 
Loggia of Or S. Michele.^' During the plague of 1348 
this painting grew so popular by reason of its supposed 
healing power, and received so many rich gifts, that 
the Signoria ordered the loggia to be filled in, and the 
corn market was converted into a church. The archi- 
tects were Neri Fioravanti and Benci di Cione. The 
church was entirely covered with frescoes of the 
XIV century, many of which still remain, and on the 
pilasters are especially well preserved. They repre- 
sent chiefly isolated figures of Saints, which, though 
much restored, retain great beauty of form and colour. 
They are attributed by Vasarr to Jacopo dal Casentino, 
pupil of Taddeo Gaddi. 

" Meantime^ the roof of Or S, Michele being almost 
complete , . , the commission was given to Jacopo di 
Casentino as a person of much experience^ to paint the 
vaultings . . . with the Patriarchs^ Prophets^ and 
Chiefs of the Tribes^ which were in all, not counting 
the other decorations, sixteen figures on a blue ground of 
ultramarine, now half ruined. He painted afterwards 
on the walls below and on the pilasters many miracles 
of the Madonna and other things, . . ." (Vas. i. 670.) 

The frescoes are much damaged, but show good 
draughtsmanship. On each side of the square pillars 
are figures of saints, and below each some small scene 
from their lives. 

Shrine of Orcagna 

Orcagna received the commission for the Tabernacle 
to enclose the sacred painting and finished it in 1359. 
The authorship of the painting is much disputed, some 
even supposing it to be a copy of the original, so well 
is it preserved. It is attributed to Ugolino da Siena 
by Vasari. 





" He painted Our Lady on a plaster of brick in the 
Loggia that Lafo had built on the Piazza of Or 5. 
Michele, which not many years after performed so many 
miracles that the loggia was for a long time filled with 
imagesy^ and is still held in the highest veneration."*^ 
(Vas. i. 455.) 

In a book of accounts called 
// Biadaiuolo^ now in the 
' Biblioteca Laurenziana, dating 
from 1300 to 1335, is a mini- 
ature painting showing the pic- 
ture within a marble tabernacle. 
It represents the Madonna en- 
throned holding the Child seated 
on her knee, with three Angels 
on either side. In the actual 
painting the position of the 
Child is different, and the 
angels are four on either side. 
Milanesi, basing his theory on 
documents of payment to Ber- 
nardo Daddi, dated 1347, 
assumes that he is the painter, 

but that he worked over one of earlier date. Caval- 
caselle considered it to be by Lorenzo Monaco. It 
seems, however, of earlier date, and shows the influ- 
ence of Giotto rather than of the Sienese. The 
Tabernacle of Orcagna, which enshrines it, is described 
by Vasari at great length. (Vas. i. 605.) It is a 
superb work, a mass of rich sculptures, gold mosaic, 
twisted pillars, and pinnacles. Around are carved 

Or 5. Michele. 

1 These images were large figures of wax, clad in the 
costumes of the donors, portraits of those who had been 
healed. In 1401, so encumbered was the church with them, 
that a decree was issued forbidding any further addition 
except of very important personages. 

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scenes from the life of the Virgin, and at the back a 
large pictorial relief of the Virgin giving her girdle 
to S. Thomas. Below this is inscribed: andreas 


(On Pilaster right of 2nd Chapel, Right Aisle.) 
beloWj the Annunciation, T.w. 

A fine figure, dressed in green and red. Mentioned 
by Vasari, who confuses the Saint with that of Sogliani 
opposite, calling it S. Bartholomew. 

" Lorenzoy then a youths fainted on a piaster of Or 
S, Michele a S, Bartholomew.'' (Vas. iv. 567.) 

SOGLIANI. S. Bartholomew, o.w. 

^^ He fainted in the Church of S. Michele in Orte 
for the Guild of Vintners a S. Martin in oil in the 
habit of a bishof, which brought him fame as a good 
master'' (Vas. v. 124.) 

Of other works painted for the church, Vasari 
gives the following records : Agnolo Gaddi painted 
in tempera Christ disputing with the Doctors in the 
Temple (Vas. i. 640). In Bottari's time this was 
still in good preservation, but was destroyed when 
the room beneath the organ was constructed to serve 
as a Sacristy. Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo painted 
^^ on a filaster on canvas in oil an Archangel Raffaelle 
with Tobias" (Vas. iii. 291). This picture was taken 
to the room above the church, formerly used as a 
granary, later as the council room of the CapUani of 
the church, and was sold to the Tolomei of Siena, and 
by them to the Turin Gallery, where it now is. It 
was probably attached to one of the side pilasters, like 
the paintings of Lorenzo di Credi and Sogliani. 

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Botticelli painted the BaldacchiDO " covered with Our 
Ladies, all different and heautiful,^^ (Vas. ill. 323.) 


The Palace of the Guild of Woolworkers opposite 
the church is connected with the upper room by a 
passage over the street. It has been recently restored, 
and several important frescoes uncovered from the 
whitewash. In the chapel outside hat been placed 
an altar-piece attributed to Jacopo dal Casentino, repre- 
senting the Madonna enthroned with Saints, and, above, 
the Coronation. It is much repainted, especially the 
lower part. It was formerly in the Church of S. 
Tommaso, which was destroyed with the Mercato 

Inside, on the ground floor, are some ruined frescoes 
of the XIV century ; on the left, the Investment of a 
Bishop ; on the right, a Tournament. They are so 
much damaged that even the subjects are difficult to 
distinguish. In a small inner room in a recess is a 
Madonna and Angels of the school of Giotto, and in 
the thickness of the wall, two Saints ; in the roof, an 
old fresco, much restored, of the Lamb with the Flag 
— the stemma of the Guild. In the large hall above 
are some fine frescoes of the XIV century ; opposite 
the entrance, the Madonna Enthroned, with three 
medallions of Christ and two Saints above. On 
the right wall is seated a Judge with four Virtues 
before him, and, right and left, two figures supposed 
to be Petrarch and Dante. The fresco is much 
repainted. On the left are four grand figures of 
Saints, in niches, of the XIV century ; in the 
vaulting, medallions with Saints and Prophets. 





The Church of S. Pancrazio was already existing in 
the XI century, and gave its name to one of the 
quart'url of the city. It was rebuilt in 1480 at the 
cost of the Rucellai and Federighi families, and was 
again restored in the XVI and XVIII centuries. In 
1808 the convent was suppressed and converted into 
a Public Lottery. The church is now used as a 
tobacco factory, with the exception of the Rucellai 
Chapel, which still belongs to the family. 

*NERI DI BICCI. S. Giovanni Gualberto En- 

throned with Saints, 1454. FR. 

A fine work, the masterpiece of the painter. It was 
commissioned in 1454, and is mentioned by Neri in 
his Rlcordi, 

" / record that on the above mentioned day " (March i, 
1454), " / undertook to faint for the said Benedetto^ 
Abbot of San Brancazio of Florence, an arch in the 
cloister of the said house, where I have to faint a San 
Giovanni Gualberto with ten of the Saints and Beati 
of their order, and at his feet a kneeling Abbot, 7he 
which figures must be in an imitated chafel, round, the 
sky blue and with stars and the windows carved ; and 
all well decorated and executed as well as I am abUf^^ 
^c. («< Libro di Ricordi, Arch, di Stato di Firenze," 

fol. II.) 

S. Giovanni Gualberto is enthroned against a 
brocade curtain, with ^ve Saints on either side and 
the Abbot kneeling before him. In medallions two 

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Prophets lean out as though from windows. Much 

Cappella Rucellai 

The Cappella Rucellai formed part of the church, 
but the communication has been closed. It was built 
at the commission of Giovanni di Paolo Rucellai by 
Leon Battista Alberti in 1467 (Vas. ii. 543). The 
chapel is of beautiful architecture, with barrel roof, 
and in the centre is the exquisite little chapel said to 
be built in imitation of the Holy Sepulchre. It is of 
white marble inlaid with green Prato marble, and 
among the decorations the Medici ring and feathers 
and the Rucellai sail are conspicuous. Round the 
cornice runs the inscription : ihesvm qveritis naza- 


vBi posvERVNT EVM. On the facade is inscribed : 


Inside is * a fresco by Alesso Baldovinetti repre- 
senting Christ rising from the Tomb, an Angel kneeling 
on either side. The interior is quite dark and the 
paintings can be seen only by artificial light. They 
are much damaged and blackened by smoke, and the 
Christ is hardly perceptible, but the angels in brocade 
robes are unrepainted and of great beauty ; a fine and 
characteristic work of the master. 


The Pitti Palace was begun about 1440 by order of 
Luca Pitti on the design of Brunellesco and under the 
direction of Luca Fancelli. The original plans were 
much smaller than the actual building. The main part 




was completed in 1466, but the Pitti had not sufficient 
money to continue the work, and in 1549 Buonaccorso 
Pitti sold it to Eleonora of Toledo, wife of Cosimo I. 
The Medici then sold their palace in Via Larga to the 
Marchese Riccardi and took up their abode here. It 
has since been the residence of the Austrian grand - 
dukes and of the House of Savoy. The wings were 
added in 1630 when the gallery was arranged. 

Bed-chamber of the King 

ANDREA DEL SARTO. Madonna and Child 
Baptist, o.w. 
A good work. 

Ante-room of the Apartments of the Queen 

A poor painting badly restored. Not by the master. 

PAOLO VERONESE. Portrait of Francesco / . 


A fine portrait. He is seated against a red curtain, 
dressed in black doublet and fur-trimmed mantle, on 
which is the cross of S. Stephen. 

RUBENS. Portrait of his Wife . 

An interesting sketch of fine colour, painted in oil over 
a letter written to her by the painter before marriage, 
the words of which can be seen beneath. The sheet 
is inserted in a canvas on which the bust has been con- 
tinued later, but only the head is by Rubens. 

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♦TITIAN. Portrait of Giulia Varana. ox. 

CalJed erroneously Catherine de Medicis and attributed 
to Tintoretto. The attribution to Titian is Dr. 
Gronau's. A fine unfinished work of splendid colour. 
She is dressed in brilliant red yelvet with pearls in her 
hair, and behind a building to the right is a landscape 
with a night effect. 

ATT. JACOPO BASSANO. Portrait of a 
Knight of Malta, o.c. 

A fine portrait. 

ATT. PALMA VECCHIO. Portrait of Old 
Man, o.w. 

HOLBEIN. Portrait of Young Girl 

A fine and interesting portrait of a girl in a chestnut- 
coloured dress trimmed with black velvet and a black 

Bedroom of the Queen 

CARLO DOLCI. Heads of the Archangel and 
Virgin of the Annunciation, 

Private Chapel of the Medici 
♦LUCAS KRANACH. Portrait of a Lady, 


A charming little portrait of brilliant colour. The 
lady wears a red head-dress with ostrich feathers and 
a dress trimmed with seed pearls. 





♦BOTTICELLI. Pallas and the Centaur. 1480 (?) 


Discovered by the late Mr. William Spence in 1894 
in a dark corner of the palace. The scene is allegori- 
cal, and probably alludes to the triumphant return of 

Lorenzo from Naples 
in 14809 and may 
be dated somewhere 
about that time. The 
centaur symbolises dis- 
cord, and Pallas wear- 
ing the olive branches 
the peace gained by the 
wisdom of Lorenzo. 
Her dress is embroid- 
ered with his device, 
the diamond rings, and 
the Medici diamond 
is again set in her hal- 
berd. The view of the 
sea in the background 
alludes probably to 
the position of Naples. 
Notwithstanding a cer- 
tain heaviness in the 
form and gesture of 
Pallas, it is one of Botticelli's finest works, and of har- 
monious beautiful colour. Vasari mentions a similar 
work executed for Lorenzo. 

" In Casa Medici for Lorenzo the Elder he painted 
many things, and chiefly a Pallas on a device of branches 
that dart -flames ; which he fainted the size of life^ 
(Vas. iii. 312.) 

It is just possible that it may have been painted as a 
standard to be borne in some triumphal procession or 

Pallas and Centaur 


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tournament, and that the device of flaming branches 
may have been on the reverse or around it. 

CARLO DOLCL Madonna, o.c. 

SCH. OF BOTTICELLL Madonna adoring the 
Christ Child, T.w. 

A poor work by one of Botticelli's weakest followers. 
It is surprising that with the fine '< Pallas" oj^site, 
this painting should be seriously ascribed to himself. 
The Virgin kneels before the Child, which lies on her 
mantle against a background of roses. Right and left 
are two Angels. The expression of the faces is ignoble 
and the drawing poor. 

ATT. HOLBEIN. Portrait of Lady, o.w. 
So much repainted as to be almost modern. 

aux Rochers.^^ o.w. 

An old but poor copy of Leonardo's painting on a 
reduced scale. 

ATT. FILIPPINO LIPPI. Madonna adoring 
the Christ Child. T.w. 

A poor work, certainly not by the master. 


FRENCH SCH. Portrait of Marie Louise, 
daughter of Charles III. 

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♦NATTIER. Portrait of Marie Louisey daughter 
of Louis XV.y as Flora. 

♦NATTIER. Portrait of Marie Anne, daughter 
of Louis XV,, as Diana, 
Two fine portraits of great charm. 

NATTIER. Portrait of a Child Princess. 


The Church of S. Remigio, or S. Romeo, was built 
on the site of an old hospice for French pilgrims pass- 
ing through Florence on their way to Rome. It was 
converted to a church about the XI century. It was 
rebuilt about 1428 at the cost of the Pepi, Bagnesi, 
and Alberti families. Over the door, where now is a 
modern painting, was formerly a fresco by Agnolo 
Gaddi. (Vas. i. 640.) 

of Mercy, t.w. 

So entirely repainted as to seem modern. 

(Atrium leading to Canonica.) FLOR. SCH. 
XIV CENT. The Annunciation. T.w. 

Removed here from the Loggia del Grano, now Teatro 
Salvini. Vasari records several altar-pieces painted 
for the church, among which the most important is the 
Pietd by Maso di Banco, attributed by him to Giottino, 

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now in the Uffizi, No. 27. (Vas. i. 627.) It was 
removed from the church in 1842. Orcagna painted 
for an Altar near the side door an altar-piece now lost. 

(Vas. i. 595.) 


The Palazzo Riccardi, formerly Palazzo Medici, was 
built in 1430 at the commission of Cosimo il Vecchio 

Detail of Fresco (i) 
Benozzo Gozzoli. Palazzo Riccardi. 

from the design of Michelozzo. It was the residence 
of the Medici until the time of Cosimo L, who trans- 
ferred his court to the Palazzo Vecchio, and later to 
the Pitti. It was sold by Ferdinando IL to the 
Marchese Gabriello Riccardi, who made many addi- 

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tions and alterations. In 1814 it was bought by the 
Gk)verDment, and was used for public ofHces. It is 

Detail of. Frescq (2) 
Benozzo Gozzoli. Palazzo Riccardi. 

now occupied by the Prefecture. The first door to 
the right of entrance leads to the upper floor, where 
are the large hall and the chapel. The hall on the 

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first floor has the ceiling painted by Luca Giordano 
in 1683. It represents the apotheosis of Cosimo III. 
and Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici, who figure as 
deities among many allegorical scenes. 

* On the floor above is the small chapel frescoed by 
Benozzo Gozzoli in 1459 at the commission of Piero 
de' Medici. On the Altar was formerly the painting 
of the Nativity by Fra Filippo, now in the Berlin 
Gallery, of which a varied replica exists in the Acca- 
demia, No. 79. The scheme of decoration takes this 
Nativity as the central point. On either side Angels 
bow before it and the Shepherds adore the Child, 
while the Procession of the Kings winds round the 
three walls towards it. Beginning with the right wall 
the procession is seen winding down a rocky mountain 
headed by the youngest of the kings — a portrait of 
Lorenzo, then eleven years old. He is gorgeously 
clad and mounted on a white horse blazing with gold 
harness. Behind rides Cosimo il Vecchio, among a 
group of horsemen, all of whom seem to be portraits. 
Among these, far back, Benozzo has painted his own 
portrait, his cap inscribed, opvs Benotii. The castle 
on the hill is said to be Vincigliata, as it was in the 
XV century. On the wall opposite the Altar rides 
the second King in brilliant costume, covered with 
gold, surrounded by pages. He i» said to be a por- 
trait of the Greek Emperor John Paleologus, who 
had come to Florence in 1439 for the Council. This 
fresco has been much damaged by alterations made by 
the doorway. 

On the left wall rides the old King, a portrait of 
the Patriarch of Constantinople — the hinder part of his 
mule, damaged by the doorway, remains on the other 
, wall. The youth, on whose horse's back is seated a 
panther, is said to be a portrait of Castruccio Castra- 
cani. Winding up the hill are the camels laden with 

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On the walls before the Aluur are the Shepherds — 
those to the left with the ox, those to the right with 







r^ii^i! i 



^ t 



Detail of Fresco (3) 
Benozzo Gozzoli. Palazzo Riccardi. 

the ass ; the latter is admirably foreshortened in a way 
that recalls Pisanello. In the embrasure of the window 
angels stand and kneel in a spacious landscape, some 

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Detail of Fresco (4) 
Benozzo Gozzoli. Palazzo Riccardi. 

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of great charm. In all the frescoes the landscape has 
great beauty, a faithful portrait, with its rocks and 
cypresses, of the hills round Florence. They are the 
masterpiece of the painter, not only for their decorative 
splendour, but for the fine draughtsmanship and com- 
position. They represent the apotheosis of the Medici 
family, which, however, with characteristic ostentation 
of humility, has included 
only one of its members 
among the kings, Piero, 
who commissioned them, 
not being even portrayed. 
As wall decorations they are 
unrivalled, for the grandeur 
and unity of the large com- 
position, the skilful painting 
of the landscape, which 
actually seems to stretch 
back on either side, and the 
gorgeous blaze of gold and 
colour. Vasari mentions 
them without comment. 
(Vas. ii. 46.) The chapel 
is beautifully decorated. 
The roof is carved with 
deep cofFerings glowing 
with gold and ultramarine. The paintings have 
suffered much damage. The wall on either side of 
the door was moved forward and the frescoes re- 
painted and some parts freshly added. The window 
was enlarged in 1837 to give more light to the paint- 
ings, at which date they were completely restored. At 
the same time the altar-piece was removed. 

Detail of Fresco (5) 

Benozzo Gozzoli. Palazzo 

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The suppressed convent of S. Salvi belonged to the 
Vallombrosan monks, and was in existence in 1084. 
The church was much damaged during the siege of 
Florence, and was restored in the last century. It 
contains nothing worthy of attention. 

The entrance to the Refectory, in which is the 

Andrea del Sarto. S. Salvi. 

famous Cenacolo of Andrea del Sarto, is in the Via 
S. Salvi to the right of the church. The fresco was 
commissioned by Don Ilario Panichi, Abbot of the 
Convent, in 15 19. In the arch above are fiye medal- 
lions with three heads of Christ, symbolising the 
Trinity, in the centre, and on either side half figures 
of SS. Salvi and Benedict in episcopal dress, and 
below SS. Giovanni Gualberto and Bernardo degli 
Uberti. These were painted earlier than the Cena- 

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coloy but are so much restored as to show little of his 

" Andrea was commissioned by the monks of Fallom- 
brosa to paint for the Monastery of 5. Salvi outside 
the Porta alia Croce, in the Refectory, the arch of a 
roofy and the side of the wall with a Cenacolo ; in which 
roof he painted in four tondi four figures, S. Benedict, 
S. Giovanni Gualberto, S. Salvi, Bishop, and S. Bernardo 
degli Uberti, Cardinal and frate of the order. And in 
the midst he painted a tondo in which are three faces 
united in one, signifying the Trinity,"*^ (Vas. v. 14.) 

Later he continued the * Cenacolo. " 7he monks 
of S. Salvi for many years had not thought of having 
their Cenacolo begun, which they had commissioned to 
Andrea after he had painted the arch with the four 
figures ; but an abbot — galantuomo and of good judge- 
ment — proposed that he should finish the work ; where- 
fore Andrea, who had already pledged himself to do it, 
made no resistance but set hand to it in a few months, 
and working at his pleasure, a piece at a time, completed 
the work in such a manner that it was held and certainly 
is the most facile, most animated in colour and draw- 
ing, that he ever or that ever could be painted, he 
having given breadth, majesty, and infinite grace to 
all the figures, so that I know not what to say of this 
Cenacolo that is not below its merits, being such that 
whoever sees it is amazed. Hence it is not surprising 
that its excellence was the cause that in the destruction 
of the siege of Florence in the year 1529, it was spared, 
while the soldiers and destroyers, by order of those in 
authority, ruined all the outlying suburbs of the city — 
monasteries, hospitals, and all other buildings. 7hese, 
I say, having ruined the Church and Campanile of 
S. Salvi and beginning to demolish part of the Convent, 
when they reached the Refectory where is the Cenacolo, 
their leader, seeing and perhaps having heard speak 
of this marvellous painting, abandoned the undertaking. 

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and allowed nothing more to be destroyed in that place , 
reserving it to the last when other resources failed.''^ 
(Vas. V. 47.) 

Vasari's praise is not exaggerated, for the Cenacolo 
is the masterpiece of Andrea. Composition, group- 
ing, and perspective are admirable. The scene is 
treated with a simplicity and directness and an absence 
of superfluous detail which give it great dignity. 

On the wails of the Refectory and in the adjoining 
room are several paintings of the school of Andrea 
and Vasari, among them a S. Catherine, dated 15 12, 
attributed to Franciabigio. 


This small cloister is the only remaining part of the 
Convent of the Confraternity of S. Giovanni Battista, 
an Order instituted in 1376, and called dello Scaizo, 
because the monks went barefoot. It was suppressed 
in 1785 by Pietro Leopoldo, and the cloister attached 
to the Accademia. The commission for the frescoes 
was given to Andrea del Sarto in 15 15, and in the 
years following he painted several of the scenes, but 
being summoned to France by Francis I. he left them 
unfinished. The monks, not knowing he would so soon 
return, ordered Franciabigio to finish them, and he 
painted two scenes during Andrea's absence. Andrea, 
returning in 15 19, continued the work, completing it 
in 1526. 

" 7he men of the Compagnia called dello Scaizo 
dedicated to S. John the Baptist^ were wont to assemble 
in Florence at the top of the Via Larga in the house 
of the Magnifico Ottaviano de^ Medici^ opposite the 
gardens of S, Marco, which was built at that time by 
many Florentine artificers, who among other things had 

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had a cortile constructed, which rested on small pillars. 
Therefore some of them, seeing that Andrea had reached 
the first rank as a fainter, deliberated, being richer in 
spirit than in money, that he should faint round the 
said cloister in twelve pictures in chiaroscuro in fresco, 
twelve scenes from the life of S, John the Baptist,^' 
(Vas. V. 9.) 

The frescoes are*much damaged and repainted, having 
been several times restored and cleaned , but they rank 
among the best and most important of Andrea's works. 
They were painted in the following order : — 

1517 Justice. 

The Baptist preaching to the Multitude. 
The Baptist Baptizing. 
The Baptist before Herod. 
The Baptism of Christ. 

1518 The Departure of the Baptist for the Desert ; 

The Meeting of Christ and the Baptist. 

— Franciabigio. 



1524 The Angel announces to Zaccharia the Birth 
of a Son. 

The Visitation, 

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1526 Hope 

The Birth of the Baptist. 

Beginning on the right of entrance, taking the frescoes 
in detail : — 

I Faith. 1520. 

Painted after Andrea's return from France. The 
face is a portrait of his wife. 

*2 The Announcement to Zaccharia of the Birth of a 
Son. 1524. 

Of this and the following Vasari writes : — 

" Andrea fainted in the before mentioned Cortile dello 
Scalzo two other scenes, in one of which he represented 
Zacheria o-ffering sacrifice, struck dumb at the appari- 
tion of the Angel ; in the other the Visitation, marvel- 
lously heautifuL^^ (Vas. v. 41.) 

The Announcement to Zaccharia is one of the best 
of the series, the perspective and composition being 

3 The Visitation. 1524. 

The figure of the servant to the right carrying a sack 
is exceedingly fine. The fresco is much damaged. 

4 The Birth of the Baptist. 1526. 

Painted the last of the series. " Inhere remained in 
the Cortile dello Scalzo only one scene to complete. 
Wherefore Andrea, whose style had grown broader from 
having studied the figures that Michelangelo had begun 
and in part finished for the Sacristy of S. Lorenzo, set 

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to work to finish the last scene, and in it he -painted 
the birth of 5. John the Baptist with most beautiful 
figures, much better and more solidly modelled than the 
others he had painted in the same place. Of special 
beauty are a woman who carries the child to the bed 
zvhere is 5. Elizabeth — also a very beautiful figure, and 
Zacharias who zvrites on a paper placed on his knee^'* &c. 
(Vas. V. 45.) 

The fresco is much damaged. 

The Departure of the Baptist for the Desert, 

Painted by Franciabigio after the departure of Andrea 
for France. 

" 'Not long after, Andrea del Sarto departing to 
France, who had begun to paint for the Compagnia 
dello Scalzo of Florence a cortile in chiaroscuro with 
scenes from the life of S, John the Baptist, the frati, 
wishing to have the work finished, commissioned Francia 
as the imitator of Andrea's style to continue the painting 
begun by him. Wherefore Francia painted the decora- 
tions round one part and finished two scenes with diligence, 
which are where 5. John the Baptist takes leave of his 
father Zacheria to go to the desert, and the other the 
meeting which took place by the way between Christ 
and S. John, with Joseph and Mary, who may be seen 
there embracing. More than these he did not do because 
of Andrea's return, who continued and completed the 
rest of the work.^^ (Vas. v. 194.) 

The documents of payment prove that the two 
frescoes were begun 1 5 1 8 and finished 1 5 1 9- Zacch- 
aria is seen in the centre blessing the kneeling child, 
while his mother sits near in deep dejection. Left, 
the child is seen departing to the desert. 

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6 The Meeting of the Baptist and Christ, 1519. 

In both his scenes Franciabigio has well imitated the 
style of Andrea. 

7 The Baptism of Christ. 1517. 

Probably the first of the series. The figures are on a 
smaller scale than the foregoing. 

8 Charity. 1 520. 

One of the most damaged and repainted of the series. 
In the Uffiziare two studies for the figure. 

9 Justice. 1 5 17. 

Also much ruined. 

" He fainted for the decorattott of the door that leads 
to the Compagnta, a Charity and a Justice, very 
beautiful'' (Vas. v. 21.) 

On the pedestal is inscribed: diligite ivstitiam qvi 


10 The Baptist preaching to the Multitude, 1 5 1 7. 

One of the earliest. 

" In one of the scenes he fainted S. John preaching to 
the crowd with animated gesture, his parched form 
accordant with the life he led, and with an expres- 
sion of face which shows soul and reflection. Likewise 
the variety and vivacity of the listeners is marvellous, 
some standing with admiration, and all astonished to 
hear fresh words and such rare and original doctrine.'' 
(Vas. V. 21.) 

A fine, accurately balanced composition, but Vasari 
exaggerates the dramatic effect. To the right is an 

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old man in a long mantle copied directly from 
Diirer's engraving " Ecce Homo " in his copperplate 
" Passion." The woman seated on the left with a 
child is also copied from Diirer's woodcut of the 
Birth of the Virgin. 

" I will not deny that while Andrea was engaged on 
this and other paintings^ certain prints engraved in 
copper by Alberto Duro were published and that he 
made use of them and copied certain figures^ adapting 
them to his own style, which has made some think, not 
that there is harm in making clever use of others* good 
things, but that Andrea had not much invention.'^ 
(Vas. V, 22.) 

There is a red chalk drawing for this fresco in the 
Uffizi, No. 1 58. 

11 S, John baptizing the Multitude. 1 5 1 7. 

Much praised by Vasari. (Vas. v. 21.) The draw- 
ing of the figure of the Baptist is not so faultless as is 
usual with Andrea, the leg being badly foreshortened 
from the knee downward. To the right are a finely 
drawn half nude youth and a naked child astride on 
a rock in Andrea's characteristic attitude. 

12 The Baptist brought before Herod, 1517. 

^^ Andrea, after his return to Florence, painted four 
scenes all near each other. In the first is S. John 
brought before Herod. In the next is the supper and 
the dance of Herodias, with figures very suitable. In 
the third is the decollation of S. John, in which the 
half nude judge is a very well-drawn figure, as indeed 
are all the others. In the fourth Herodias presents the 
head, and in this are some figures astonished, executed 
with most admirable thought. The which scenes were 

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at one time the studio and school of many youths, who 
are now excellent artists,''^ (Vas. v. 32.) 

A study for the executioner is in the Uffizi. 

♦13 The Banquet of Herod. 

One of the best of the series. 

The scene lacks 

The Banquet of Herod 
Andrea del Sarto. Lo Scalzo. 

dramatic quality, but is admirable for its grouping and 
fine perspective. 

14 The Decollation of the Baptist. 

15 Salome presenting the Head to Herodias. 
The scene is the same as No. 13. 

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252 S. SIMONE 

l6 Hope. 1526. 

Much damaged and repainted. 


The Church of SS. Simone e Giuda was originally 
a small oratory built in a vineyard outside the city 
walls which belonged to the monks of the Badia. 
It was enlarged to a church in 1293, and was restored 
and altered in 1630 at the cost of the Galilei family, 
chiefly of Fra Bartolommeo Galilei, who was a knight 
of Malta. Hence the Maltese cross plays a large 
part in the decoration. 

♦(Right Aisle, ist Altar.) BYZANTINE SCH. 
XIV CENT. S. Peter Enthroned with 
Angels, 1308. T.w. 

A colossal figure of the Saint enthroned with an 
Angel on either side against a gold background. In- 
scribed below : istam tabvlam fecit societas beati 


Mcccviii. It was painted for the Church of S. Pier 
Maggiore, destroyed by fire in 1783. It was formerly 
in the Sacristy. 

(Left of Entrance.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. The 

Birth of the Baptist, FR. 

Part of the original decoration of the church. The 
child stands upright in the bath praying. 

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The Church of S. Spirito was built on the site of a 
small oratory, built by the Augustinian monks in the 
XIII century. In 1397 the families living in the 
Oltr'arno had the church enlarged, and in 1433 it 
was entirely rebuilt on the designs of Brunellesco, who 
died before it was completed. In 1480, during a 
festa held in honour of Galeazzo Sforza, the church 
took fire, and was almost completely destroyed. It 
was rebuilt in 1487 on the original plans, which were, 
however, much altered. Vasaii mentions several fres- 
coes of the XIV century in the cloister and convent, 
but in the church he mentions only one, by Giottino. 

" He -painted in fresco a chapel in the old San Spirito 
which was destroyed in the "fire of that temple^ and in 
fresco, over the principal door of the church, the story 
of the sending of the Holy Spirit ^ (Vas. i. 623.) 

Many important altar-pieces of the XV century 
still remain in the chapels of the Transept and 
Tribuna in their original frames and on the original 
Altars, painted by artists of the same date. There 
are thirty-eight chapels in the church, those in the 
aisles containing nothing of importance. 

Right Transept 

(ist. Chapel. Altar Front.) FLOR. SCH. XV 
CENT. The Baptist, o.w. 

*(2nd Chapel. Cappella Capponi — the Capponi 
possessed three chapels in the church.) 
giving the Rules of her Order to her Nuns, 
A very fine painting, showing the influence of Antonio 

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Pollaiuolo. S. Monica in the dress of an Abbess is 
seated on a marble throne, above which are seen 
cypresses and palms in the manner of Alesso Baldo- 
vinetti. She is surrounded by twelve nuns, and in 
front kneel two young children, one turning to the 
spectator, a charming figure recalling Fra Filippo. 
All the faces have the individuality of portraits. In 
the Predella are five scenes. In the centre the Pieta 
with SS. Monica and Augustine, and on either side 
two scenes from their lives, so much blackened by 
smoke as to be nearly indistinguishable. The painting 
has been attributed to Antonio Pollaiuolo and to Fra 
Filippo, and has much in common with both, like all 
Botticini's work. It is in so dark a corner and so 
blackened by smoke that its great merit cannot be 
properly appreciated. 

*(5th Chapel. Cappella de' Nerli.) FILIPPINO 
LIPPI. Madonna Enthroned with Saints, 

" In San Spirito he painted a picture with our Lady, 
S, Martin, S, Niccolo, and 5. Catherine, for Tanai de* 
Nerlir (Vas. iii. 464.) 

One of his finest works. The Virgin is enthroned 
against a landscape, and holds the Child, who plays 
with the cross held up to Him by the infant Baptist. 
Left, S. Martin presents the donor, Tanai de* Nerli ; 
right, S. Catherine presents his wife. Beyond the 
portico, on the right, is seen the Palace of the Nerli, 
with Tanai kissing his child, his war-horse standing 
by. Beyond is the Porta S. Frediano with the hill 
of Monte Oliveto. It is in its original frame. Be- 
low, according to Vasari, was formerly a predella by 
RaflPaellino del Garbo representing a Pieta. (Vas. iv. 

(6th Chapel.) For the Altar of this chapel Peru- 

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gino painted his Vision of S. Bernard, now in the 
Munich Gallery, No. 1034. It was sold to Ludwig 
I. in 1829 by the Capponi family, to whom it be- 
longed, and is replaced by a copy by Felice Ficher- 

(7th Chapel. Cappella Capponi.) This chapel 
was formerly frescoed by Berna with scenes from the 
life of S. James. (Vas. i. 649.) For the Altar Pier 
di Cosimo painted a Visitation with SS. Niccolo and 
Antonio. (Vas. iv. 133.) It was removed to the 
Villa Capponi at LegDaja, and later sold. 


(ist Chapel. Cappella Mancini.) SCH. OF 
GIOTTO. Madonna and Saints, T.w. 

Fragments of an altar-piece, much repainted, and set 
in an ugly modern frame. 

(2nd Chapel.) LORENZO DI CREDI (?). 

Madonna Enthroned between SS. John the 
Evangelist and Jerome, o.w. 

A good painting, in a fine old frame. 

(Altar Front.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 

S, Bartholomew, T.w. 

(3rd Chapel. Altar Front.) NERI DI BICCI. 
S, Luke, T.w. 

The Saint is seated on the ground with the ox by 
his side, and two Angels withdrawing brocade curtains. 
An interesting painting. 

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(4th Chapel.) GIOVANNI DA S. GIO- 
VANNI (?). Predella. o.w. 

Below an altar-piece by Alessandro Allori is a charm- 
ing Predella representing the family of the donor ador- 
ing the Crucifix. In a spacious landscape they advance 
on either side ; on the right, two ladies and three 
nuns ; on the left, an old man with his son by his 
side and two boys near. Between these a Saint in 
Dominican habit blesses them. 

(5th Chapel. Cappella de' Bardi. Altar Front.) 
FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. S. Francis. 


For this Altar Botticelli painted the Madonna of the 
Olives, now in the Berlin Gallery. 

"/« S. Spirito of Florence he painted a picture for 
the Chapel of the Bardi which is carefully executed and 
well finished^ where are some olives and palms painted 
with great loveP (Vas. iii. 310.) 

The picture was sold in 1825. 

(6th Chapel. Cappella de' Frescobaldi.) FLOR. 
SCH. XV CENT. The Annunciation. T.W. 

A poor work, formerly attributed to Botticelli. 

(7th Chapel.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The 
Nativity. T.W. 

A charming painting, formerly attributed to Botticelli. 
In the Predella, 8. Francis receiving the Stigmata, a 
Pieta, and Tobias and the Archangel. 

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Left Transept 

*(ist Chapel. Cappella Baldelli.) SCH. OF 
BOTTICELLL Madonna with SS. Bar- 
tholomew and John the Evangelist, T.w. 

A fine work. In the Predella is a Pieta with Saints. 

(2nd Chapel. Altar Front.) NERI DI BICCL 
Two Donors adoring the Trinity, t.w. 

A charming scene. In the sky are the Almighty, 
Christ, and the Virgin, and below, kneeling in a field 
of flowers, a youth and a young woman, the donors. 
Around are birds representing the Holy Dove, but 
resembling geese. 

(3rd Chapel.) COSIMO ROSSELLI. Madonna 
Enthroned between SS, Thomas and Peter, 
1482. T.w. 

A fine work. It is dated on the pedestal of the 
throne: mcccclxxxii. In the Predella, the Agony 
in the Garden, the Annunciation, and a scene of nuns 
kneeling before a Bishop. 

(Altar Front.) NERI DI BICCL The Incredulity 
of S, Thomas, T.w. 

Around are the same geese- like doves as on the Altar 
of the preceding chapel. 

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♦(5th Chapel. Cappella Minucci.) ATT. RAF- 
with 5. Mary of Egypt and S, Catherine, 


A fine work, in good condition, attributed by some 
critics to Cosimo Rosselli. In the Predella, the 
Communion of S. Mary of Egypt, the Martyrdom 
of S. Catherine ; and right and left, the two kneeling 
donors with putti supporting their stemma, 

(Altar Front.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. The 
Magdalen, T.W. 

*(6th Chapel.) SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Ma- 

donna Enthroned between SS, Bartholomew 
and Niccolh da Bari, T.W. 

A fine work, sometimes attributed to Cosimo Rosselli. 
Below, the donors — two monks — adore the Virgin. 
In the Predella, a Pieta. 

(Altar Front.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 

5. Bartholomew, T.w. 

*(7th Chapel.) RAFFAELLO DI CARLO. 

Madonna Enthroned with Saints, o.w. 

A ^zic work. The Virgin is seated between 88. 
Lorenzo and Stephen, and below, 88. Bernard and 
John the Evangelist, all seated. In the Predella are 
five scenes : a Pieta, the Martyrdoms of 8. John the 
Evangelist, S. Lorenzo, and 8. Stephen, and the 

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Vision of S. Bernard. This last scene is imitated 
almost exactly from the painting of Filippino Lippi 
in the Badia The large figure of the Saint also 
shows the influence of Filippino. 

(Altar Front.) FLOR. SCH. XV CENT. 

S. Lorenzo, t.w. 

On either side of the Saint kneel a young noble and 
a crippled beggar, and Angels withdraw curtains. 

(8th Chapel. Cappella Antinori.) MICHELE 
GHIRLANDAIO. The Way to Calvary, 

For the Cappella de' Dei in the left aisle Raffaelle 
began the Madonna del Baldacchino, now in the Pitti, 
No. 165. He left it unfinished, and the Dei com- 
missioned Rosso to paint the altar-piece, now also in 
the Pitti, No. 237. It was replaced by a copy by 
Francesco Petrucci. 

Of paintings in the cloisters and convent Vasari 
gives several records, but nothing of the work remains. 
The large cloister was repainted by artists of the 
XVII century, and the rest of the convent is used as 
a barrack. 

Agnolo Gaddi painted " within the door which 
leads into the convent from the Piazza^ over another 
door, our Lady with the Child in her arms and S. 
Agostino and S. Niccolo, so well done in fresco that 
the figures seem as though painted yesterday,''^ (Vas. i. 

Taddeo Gaddi painted in the cloister " two scenes 
in the arches near the Chapter House, in one of which 
he painted where Judas sells Christ, and in the other 

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the last supper that he ate with the Apostles, And in 
the same convent over the door of the Refectory he 
painted a Crucifixion and some Saints.^^ (Vas. i. 574.) 

(jiovanni (jaddi, his son, " painted in the Cloister 
of S, Spirito, where are the arches by Gaddo and Taddeo, 
the Dispute of Christ in the Temple with the Doctors ^ 
the Purification of the Virgin^ the Temptation of Christ 
in the Desert^ and the Baptism of John,^* (Vas. i. 643.) 

Cimabuc '* painted in the cloister of San Spirito where 
is painted in the Greek manner by other Af asters all 
the side towards the Churchy three arches with the life 
of Christ.'' (Vas. i. 254.) 

Vasari mentions these earlier Byzantine paintings 
in his preface to the «* Lives." (Vas. i. 242.) 

Simone Martini painted the Chapter-house with 
scenes from the Passion. The Crucifixion is de- 
scribed by Vasari at great length. These frescoes 
were much damaged in his time by damp, and in 1560 
were totally destroyed in restoring the Chapter-house. 
(Vas. i. 549.) 

Stefano Fiorentino» pupil of Giotto, painted three 
of the arches of the cloister with the Transfiguration, 
Limbo, and S. Peter walking on the Sea, all described 
at great length by Vasari. In the Limbo was a flight 
of steps so well designed that they were copied by 
Giuliano da S. Gallo at the order of Lorenzo de' 
Medici for the Villa of Poggio a Caiano. (Vas. i. 448.) 

Finally, Antonio Veneziano painted also in the 
arches of the cloisters the Calling of Zebedee's Sons, 
and under the three arches painted by Stefano, the 
Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, described at great 
length by Vasari. On the facade outside he painted 
the Gathering of the Manna (Vas i. 663). Of all 
these frescoes, which from the detailed description of 
Vasari must have been well preserved in his time, not 
a trace now remains. 

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Chapel of S. Jacopo 

On the north of the small cloister built by Am- 
manatiy now used as a barrack, is the Chapel of S. 
Jacopo, recently restored by the Corsini family, to 
whom it belongs. Within are two fine Gothic 
Tombs, very badly restored. To the left, that of 
Neri Corsini, Bishop of Fiesole, founder of the 
chapel, who died in 1377. Over the sarcophagus is 
a Resurrection, of the school of Giotto, and in the 
arches of the brackets below three half figures of Saints. 
They are entirely and badly repainted, but are still 

The other Tomb is of Tommaso Corsini, who died 
1366. It was transferred here from S. Gaggio. 
The large arch above the sarcophagus was formerly 
frescoed, but not a trace now remains. 


The Church of S. Trinita was built on the site of a 
small oratory called S. Maria dello Spasimo. Accord- 
ing to Villani it was rebuilt about 1250 from a design 
by Niccolo Pisano. The facade is the work of 
Buontalenti in 1593, who replaced the earlier one, 
which may be seen in the fresco of Ghirlandaio in the 
Cappella Sassetti. To Buontalenti is also due the 
destruction of the frescoes in the interior of the church. 
In 1 89 1 it was completely restored, and some of the 
old frescoes recovered from the whitewash. 

Entrance Wall 

(Right of Chief Door.) FLOR. SCH. XIV 
CENT. The Trinity, fr. 
The Trinity is symbolised by three half figures of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

262 s. trinitA 

Christ exactly alike. They are entirely repainted. 
Discovered behind the Altar of Benedetto da Rovez- 
zano in 1888, when it was removed to the Cappella 

Right Aisle 

(ist Chapel. Cappella Gianfigliazzi, now Lotter- 
inghidellaStufo. Outside.) FLOR. SCH. 
XIV CENT. Fresco. 

Representing a monk and sleeping Saint with an archi- 
tectural background. Entirely repainted. 

(In Recess, right.) SCH. OF GIOTTO. The 

Communion of S. Mary of Egypt, fr. 

Entity repainted. 

(3rd Chapel.) NERI DI BICCI. Madonna and 
Saints. T.W. 

A good picture. In front two Angels adore the head 
of Christ. In the Predella, on the sea shore kneel the 
Virgin and the Evangelist adoring a Pieta^ and behind 
them on rocks 86. Francis and Sebastian, the 
Magdalen, and Tobias and the Archangel ; a charming 

*(4th Chapel. Cappella Bartolini - Salimbeni.) 
LORENZO MONACO. Scenes from the 
Life of the Fir gin. FR. 

Mentioned by Vasari without comment. (Vas. ii. 21.) 
They are much ruined, but judiciously restored. On 
the arch outside is the Assumption of the Virgin 

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entirely repainted. In the vaulting four Prophets. 
On the Altar wall the Presentation in the Temple 
and the Birth of the Virgin. In the arch above an 
almost effaced scene. On the right wall, the Marriage 
of the Virgin — the figure of the Virgin of great charm. 
Above, in the arch, the Burial of the Virgin. On the 
left wall, the Meeting of Joachim and Anna, and 
above, in the arch, the Departure of Joachim for the 

*(On Altar.) LORENZO MONACO. Tlu 

Annunciation, T.w. 

His best surviving work. It is painted in imitation of 
the altar-piece of his master, Simone Martini, now in the 
Uffizi, No. 23, which it resembles strongly. In the 
Predella are four scenes minutely painted, the Visitation, 
the Nativity, the Adoration of the Magi, and the 
Flight into Egypt. 

(5th Chapel. Cappella Ardinghelli. Outside.) 
SCH. OF GIOTTO. \ Niccold in Glory 
with two Angels, FR. 

(In Recess.) GIOVANNI TOSCANI. Pieth 
with the f^irgin and Evangelist, fr. 

The Ardinghelli Chapel, dedicated to S. Niccold, is 
now the property of the monks of Vallombrosa, at 
whose expense it was recently restored. They had 
the marble Altar by Benedetto da Rovezzano removed 
here from the right of entrance, and uncovered from 
the whitewash the only fresco which survives. The 
chapel was entirely covered with paintings, which were 
begun by a Frate Domenico, who completed only the 
vaulting. The walls were continued by Giovanni 

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264 s. trinitA 

Toscani at the commission of Neri and Piero degli 
Ardinghelli. Vasari wrongly attributed them to 
Lorenzo Monaco. (Vas. ii. 19.) 

Left 'Aisle 

(ist Chapel. Cappella Strozzi.) 

This chapel was frescoed by Puccio Capanna, but no 
fragment remains, as it was painted over by Poccetti. 

" In the Church of S, Trtnitd he fainted near the 
side door towards the river, the Chapel of the Strozzi, 
where in fresco is the Coronation of the Madonna with 
a choir of Angels which much resemble the manner of 
Giotto, and on the walls are stories of S. Lucia. ^^ 
(Vas. i. 403.) 

(2nd Chapel. Cappella di S. Jacopo, formerly 
Bombeni. Outside.) FLOR SCH. XIV 
CENT. Christ in Glory with Angeh, fr. 

Completely repainted. In the vaulting of the chapel 
are some fragments of fresco. 

(3rd Chapel. Cappella Davanzati.) FLOR SCH. 
XIV CENT. Fragments of Fresco. 

In the vaulting the four Evangelists. Over the sarco- 
phagus of Giuliano Davanzati, the Annunciation ; in 
the arch opposite, Christ teaching in the Temple, 
and other fragments entirely repainted. 

(On Altar.) NERI DI BICCI. The An- 
nunciation. t.w. 

Completely repainted. Behind in the landscape, are 
seen Adam and Eve chased from Eden by the Angel. 

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(4th Chapel. Cappella Compagni.) 

This chapel was formerly frescoed by Lorenzo di 
Bicci, with scenes from the life of S. Giovanni 
Gualberto. (Vas. ii. 54.) A much restored fragment 
only remains, representing the death of the Saint. 

(Outside.) FLOR. SCH. XIV. CENT. The 
Annunciation, fr. 

(On Altar.) FLOR. SCH. EARLY XV 
CENT. The Coronation of the f^irgin. 


Against a gold background Christ crowns the Virgin 
surrounded by Saints. In front kneel the donors. 
In the Predella, the Birth of the Virgin, the Presenta- 
tion, the Marriage, the Annunciation, and the Death. 

(5th Chapel. Cappella Spini.) 

This chapel was formerly frescoed by Neri di Bicci 
with scenes from the life of S. Giovanni Gualberto 
at the commission of Giovanni and Silvestro Spini in 
1453. Neri mentions them in his Ricordt. He 
mentions also painting the altar-piece for the chapel 
in 1454, with the Assumption of the Virgin, the 
Predelia being decorated with the stemma of the Spini. 
Of this no trace exists, and none of the frescoes 
remain except a fragment of a Bishop in a recess, 
most of which is entirely modern. In 1888 the 
wooden statue of the Magdalen by Desiderio was 
removed here from the entrance wall. 

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Transept Chapels 

*(ist Chapel. Cappella Sassetti.) DOMENICO 
GHIRLANDAIO. Scenes from the Life of 
S. Francesco. 1485. FR. 

(Outside.) Sihyl showing the Glory of Christ to 
Octavius. FR. 

" He painted outside the chapel on the wall over the 
arch, a scene where the Sibyl Tiburtina makes Octaviano 
the Emperor adore Christy^^ &c. (Vas. iii. 257.) 

Uncovered during the recent restoration. It is con- 
nected with the fresco over the next chapel by a 
painted pillar crowned by a statue of Octavius. On 
the base is a figure of S. Catherine. 

*(Altar Wall.) Resuscitation by 5. Francis of a 
Child of the Spini Family, 

" He painted for Francesco Sassetti in S. Trinitd a 
chapel with stories of S. Francesco, which work is 
admirably executed by him with much delicacy and 
love. In it he imitated and portrayed the bridge of 
S. Trinitd with the Palace of the Spini, painting on 
the first wall the scene where S. Francis appears in the 
sky and resuscitates that child, where is seen in the 
women who watch the resurrection, their grief for its 
death in bearing it to the sepulchre, and their joy and 
wonder at its resuscitation. He painted there with 
great truth to nature the frati who issue from the church 
with the gravediggers behind the cross, to bury him. . . . 
There are portrayed Maso degli Jlbizzi, Messer Agnolo 
Acciaiuoli, Messer Palla Strozzi, notable citizens and 
very renowned in the history of the city.^' (Vas. iii. 255.) 

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The painting is of great beauty, and has the special 
interest of showing the original fagade of the church 
before its destruction by Buontalenti, and the Palazzo 
Spini, now Ferroni, opposite, with the old Ponte della 

Resuscitation of a Child by S. Francis 
Ghirlandaio, S. Trinitd. 

Trinitk built by Taddeo Gaddi. The perspective is 
admirable. The figures seem mostly portraits ; the 
man in red mantle and cap to the extreme right, with 
his hand on his hip, is the painter himself. 

*(Above.) The Pope confirming the Rules of the 
Order of S. Francis, 

" He painted on the middle wall where S. Francesco 
goes to Rome to the Pope Onorio and has the rules of 
his order confirmed^ presenting to that pontiff roses in 
January. In which scene he painted the Hall of the 
Consistory with Cardinals seated around^ and some steps 
which ascend to it, indicating some half figures painted 
from life . . . among them the Magnifico Lorenzo de^ 
Medici the elder." (Vas. iii. 256.) 

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*(On either Side of Altar.) Francesco Sasseiti and 
his wifey Nera Cost, 

" He portrayed on one side of the altar-piece Fran- 
cesco Sassetti kneeling, and on the other Madonna Nera 
his wife, and their children (but these are in the scene 
above where the child is resuscitated), with certain fair 
youths of the same family whose names I have not been 
able to discover, all in costumes of that date. . . ." 
(Vas. iii. 256.) 

Below these fine portraits is inscribed : a.d. 


(Left Wall.) S. Francis receiving the Stigmata, 
Chiefly the work of assistants. 

(Above.) S, Francis renouncing the Worldly Life, 
The work of assistants. 

♦(Right Wall.) The Death of S, Francis. 

" And in the last he painted where he is dead and 
the frati bewail him, where is seen a frate who kisses 
his hand, which could not be better expressed in painting, 
and a Bishop robed, with spectacles on his nose, who 
chants the Vigil, so real that only not hearing shows 
it to be painted.'*^ (Vas. iii, 256.) 

One of the finest of the series. The composition 
follows closely that of Giotto in S. Croce. All the 
faces have the indiTiduality of portraits. 

(Above.) The Ordeal of Fire before the Sultan, 

In part the work of assistants. 

On the Altar was originally the Nativity now in the 
Accademia, No. 195, now replaced by a copy. 

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" He accompanied the work by an altar-piece painted 
in tempera with a Nativity of Christy which makes 

Death of S. Francis 
Ghirlandaio. S. Trinitd. 

every intelligent person marvel, in which he portrayed 
himself and painted some heads of shepherds held to he 
divine.''^ (Vas. iii. 255.) 

(In Vaulting.) Four Figures of Prophets. 

The frescoes in this chapel are the masterpiece of 
Ghirlandaio. They were painted only a year before 
those in S. Maria Novella. 

(2nd Chapel. Outside.) FLOR. SCH. XIV 
CENT. '' Salvator Mundir fr. 

Christ is enthroned upon the globe, surrounded by 

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Prophets, Saints, and Angels. In the angles of the 
arch are two Prophets. 

(Over Altar.) FLOR. SCH. XIV CENT. 

Crucifix of S, Giovanni Gualberto, T.w. 

This famous Crucifix is never exposed except on 
Good Friday. It was formerly in a tabernacle on 
the road near the Via Crucis leading to S. Miniato. 
The legend runs that the Saint, in ambush beneath it 
to waylay and assassinate the murderer of his brother, 
saw the head of Christ bow towards him and weep ; 
whereupon, 61led with remorse, he renounced his ven- 
geance and the worldly life, and founded the Vallom- 
brosan Order. The Crucifix was taken to the Church 
of S. Miniato, and at the order of Piero il Gottoso 
the chapel in the centre was built by Michelozzo 
and decorated by Luca della Robbia to enshrine it. 
During the siege it was brought for safety to 
S. Miniato, where it has since remained. The 
figure is so completely repainted as to seem modern, 
and gold rays have been added round the Cross, 
which give it a meretricious look. 

♦(Choir Chapel, formerly Cappella Gianfigliazzi.) 
Patriarchs and Fragments of Frescoes. 147 1 - 

1497. FR. 

** He fainted in tempera the picture for the High 
Altar and frescoed the Chapel of S. Trinitd for Messer 
Gherardo and Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, most 
honourable and wealthy Florentine gentlemen, painting 
there some stories of the Old Testament, which Alesso 
sketched in fresco and then finished a secco, tempering 
the colours with yolk of egg mixed with a liquid varnish 

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heated at the fire. , , , He often fainted from life, and 
in the said chapel, where he executed the story of the 
Queen of Sheba who goes to hear the wisdom of Solomon, 
he portrayed the Magnifico Lorenzo de^ Medici . . . 
and Lorenzo della Volpaia, most excellent clockmaker 
and astrologer. ... In the other scene which is oppo- 
site, Alesso painted Luigi Guiccardini the elder, Luca 
Pitti, Diotisalvi Neroni, Giuliano de* Medici, father 
of Pope Clement VIL, and near the stone pilaster 
Gherardo Gianfigliazzi the elder and Messer Bongianni, 
Knight, clad in a blue doublet with a collar round his 
neck, and Jacopo and Giovanni of the same family. 
Near them is Filippo Strozzi the elder, and Messer 
Paolo the astrologer of Pozzo Toscanelli. In the roof 
are four Patriarchs, and on the altar-piece a Trinity 
and S. Giovanni Gualberto kneeling with another 
Saint. . . . Alesso put much time into the work, because 
he was most patient and wished to execute it at his 
ease and convenience.^^ (Vas. ii. 592.) 

The frescoes were commissioned in 147 1, but not 
finished till 1497. They were destroyed in 1760, 
during the restoration of the choir. In his Ricordi^ 
preserved in the archives of S. Maria Nuova, and 
published in Lucca in 1868 by Pierotti, Alesso states 
that he received the commission for the altar-piece 
in 1470, and finished it in 1472. It is now in the 
Accademia, No. 159. It replaced an earlier one — 
the Madonna attributed to Cimabue, also in the 
Accademia, No. 102. (Vas. i. 250.) Thfe four 
Patriarchs in the vaulting are very noble figures. 
Besides these only a few fragments of landscape in 
the arches remain. 

(5th Chapel. Cappella degli Scali, now Chapel of 
the Sacrament.) 

This chapel and the preceding were frescoed by 

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272 s. trinitA 

Giovanni del Ponte and Smeraldo di Giovanni in 
1434. (Vas. i. 632.) The fragments that remain 
were uncovered from the whitewash during the recent 
restoration. They consist of the Martyrdoms of 
Saints on either side, parts of larger compositions 
which covered the wall, entirely repainted, and four 
Evangelists in the vaulting nearly effaced. Outside a 
Saint in Glory with Angels and Christ receiving a 
Saint, with Saints in the aogles. To this chapel 
was removed recently from the Church of S. Fran- 
cesco di Paola at the foot of Bellosguardo, the Tomb 
of Bishop Federighi by Luca della Robbia. 

(Cappella della Spasimo). FLOR. SCH. XV. 
CENT. The Way to Calvary, t.w. 


The Sacristy of beautiful Gothic architecture was 
decorated in 142 1 at the cost of Palla Strozzi in 
fulfilment of the wish of his father Onofrio, whose 
Tomb is within, a fine monument of the school of 
Donatello. On the Altar was originally the Adora- 
tion of the Magi painted by Gentile da Fabriano at 
the commission of Palla Strozzi in 1423, now in the 
Accademia, No. 165. (Vas. iii. 6.) 

(Right of Altar). FLOR. SCH. XV. CENT. 
Crucifixion, T.w. 

(Inner Room). FLOR. SCH. XV. CENT. 

Madonna, T.w. 

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The Palazzo Vecchio, formerly Palazzo dei Priori, 
was constructed in 1298 by Arnolfo. It was intended 
for the residence of the Chief Magistrates hitherto 
housed in the Bargello, the Badia, and some houses 
of the Cerchi family. It was formerly surrounded by 
the Ringhiera or Rostrum, from which the Priori 
harangued the people, and where state ceremonies took 
place. This was demolished in 181 2. The first 
corttle was built by Michelozzo in 1434, but the 
decoration dates only from 1565, when it was re- 
pabted and decorated in honour of the marriage of 
Francesco, son of Cosimo I., with Giovanna of 
Austria. In her honour the lunettes were frescoed 
with views of German cities, now nearly effaced. 
Cosimo I. made the Palace his headquarters from 
1540 to 1550, when he transferred his court to the 
Palazzo Pitti. It is connected by a covered passage 
over the street with the UfHzi. 

On the first floor is the large Sala del Cinquecento 
or del Gran Consiglio, built by Cronaca in 1495. 
For these walls Leonardo and Michelangelo executed 
the famous cartoons of battles of which no vestige now 
survives. Leonardo began to paint on the wall itself 
the " Battle of the Sundards," the cartoon of which 
is minutely described by Vasari. (Vas. iv. 41.) 
According to him he abandoned the work because, 
having painted it in oil instead of fresco, he saw it 
begin t3 perish before his eyes. Documents prove 
that he spent nearly the whole of the years 1504 and 
1505 in executing the cartoon, and that a large part 
of the wall itself was completed. It is probable that 
the destruction was due to the alterations made in the 
hall when it was divided into barracks for the Spanish 


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In 1504 Michelangelo also began his cartoon of 
the " Battle of Pisa ** for the opposite wall, which he 
completed in 1505. He never began to paint on the 
wall itself, being called to Rome by the Pope. Not 
a fragment of his cartoon exists, but a copy in mono- 
chrome of a part — soldiers surprised while bathing in 
the Arno — is now in the collection of the Earl of 
Leicester at Holkham Hall. The existing frescoes 
are by Vasari, Ligozzi, Passignano, and Cigoli, and 
illustrate the principal battles in the history of the 
Medici. They represent 
the lowest decadence of 
Florentine painting, as do 
the marble groups around 
that of sculpture. 

Beyond are the Sale de' 
Medici, formerly of Leo X., 
also decorated by Vasari 
and his pupils, now used as 
public offices. 

On the second floor is 

the Sala dell' Orologio or 

dei Gigli, one entire wall 

of which is frescoed by 

Domenico Ghirlandaio, * 

one of his finest works, 

executed between 1481 and 


" He fainted in the Palazzo delta Signoria, in the 

hall where is the marvellous clock of Lorenzo della 

Volpaia, some figures of Florentine Saints, with most 

beautiful decorations.'*^ (Vas. iii. 269.) 

It is divided into three parts. In the centre is 
enthroned the colossal figure of S. Zanobi beneath a 
portico, between two deacons, one of which has been 
almost destroyed in constructing the doorway. Above, 
in a lunette, is painted a relief of the Madonna and 

h^.-l: i 


S. Zanobi Enthroned 


Palazzo Vecchio. 

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two Aagels, and below on either side is a colossal 
lion holding a standard, on the one side with the Lily, 
on the other with the Cross of the Republic, a superb 
decoration. To the left beyond the portico are seen 
the Duomo, the Baptistery, and the Campanile. This 
has the interest of showing the facade of the Duomo 
as it existed in the XV century. The wall on either 
side is painted with Roman Triumph arches, on which 
stand six fine and well-posed figures of illustrious 
Romans^-on the right, Decius, Scipio, and Cicero ; 
on the left Brutus, Scaevola, and Camillus. In the 
angles are medallions with the heads of the Roman 

Beyondy on the same floor, is the Cappella di 
S. Bernardo or dei Priori, later used by Eleonora of 
Toledo. The roof is painted by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio 
in imitation of mosaic. 

" In the Palace of the Duke he fainted the chapel 
where the Signori heard mass ; executing in the centre 
of the roof the most holy Trinity, and in the other com- 
partments some putti who hold the mysteries of the 
Passion, and some heads of the twelve Apostles ; in the 
four corners he painted entire figures of the Evangelists, 
and at the top the Angel Gabriel who annunciates the 
Virgin, painting in certain landscapes the Piazza of 
the Annunziata of Florence as far as the Church of 
S. Marco.''' (Vas. vi. 539.) 

The frescoes were finished 15 14. 

The rooms following were the private apartments of 
Eleonora of Toledo, wife of Cosimo I. In the last 
are hung some paintings, of little importance with the 
exception of the following : — 

SCH. OF BOTTICELLI. Madonna and Infant 
Baptist, T.w. 

A charming school work, but much damaged. 

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SCH. OF PERUGINO. Madonna and Saints. 

* SCH. OF GIOTTO. Two Heads of Saints. 


Fragments of wall decoration from the suppressed 
Church of S. Biagio of much dignity. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Albertinelli, Mariotto. — B. 1474, d. 1515. 

Allori, Cristofano. — B. 1577, d. 1621. 

" Amico di Sandro." — B. (?), d. c. 1485. 

Andrea dal Castagno. — B. 1410, d. 1457. 

Andrea del Sarto. — B. i486, d. 1531. 

Angelico, Fra [Giovanni da FiesoleJ. — B. 1387, d. 

Antonello da Messina. — B. i444(?), d. 1493 (?). 
Antonio Veneziano. — Act. second half of 14th cent. 

Bacchiacca. — B. 1494, d. 1557. 

Baldovinetti, Alesso. — B. 1427, d. 1499. 

Bartolommeo, Fra. — B. 1475, d. 'Si?- 

Bassano, Jacopo. — B. 1510, d. 1592. 

Benedetto, Fra. — B. (?), d. 1448. 

Benozzo Gozzoli. — B. 1420, d. 1498. 

Berna.— B. (?), d. i38i(?). 

Bicci DI Lorenzo. — B. 1373, d. 1452. 

Bicci, Lorenzo DI. — B. 1350 (?),d. 1427. 

Bicci, Neri di. — B. 1419, d. 1491. 

BoNsiGNORi. — B. 1453 (?),d. 1519. 

BoRGOGNONE [Jacques Courtois]. — B. 1 628, d. 1676. 

Botticelli. — B. 1446, d. 1510. 

BoTTiciNi, Francesco. — B. 1446, d. 1498. 

Bronzino. — B. i502(?), d. 1572. 

BuFFALMAcco. — B. (?), d. after 135 1. 

BUGIARDINI. B. 1475, d. 1554. 

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Carlo Dolci. — B. 1616, d. 1686. 
Cavallini, Pietro. — B. 1260, d. 1364. 
CiGOLi [LoDovico Cardi]. — B. 1559, d. 161 3. 

CiMABUE. B. 1 240, d. C. 1302. 

Daddi, Bernardo — Act. 1 320-1 348. 
Dello. — B. 1404, d. (?). 


DoMENico Veneziano. — B. c. 1400, d. 1 461. 
Duccio. — Act. 1 282-1 339. 

Franciabigio. — B. 1482, d. 1525. 

Gaddi, Agnolo. — B. c. 1333, d. 1396. 
Gaddi, Gaddo. — B. 1259 (?), d. atter 1333. 
Gaddi, Giovanni. — B. (?), d. 1383. 
Gaddi, Taddeo. — B. 1300, d. 1366. 
Gentile da Fabriano. — B. c. 1360, d. 1428. 
Ghirlandaio, Benedetto. — B. 1458, d. 1497. 
Ghirlandaio, David. — B. 145 1, d. 1525. 
Ghirlandaio, Domenico. — B. 1449, ^* '494* 
Ghirlandaio, Michele. — Act. middle of 16th cent. 
Ghirlandaio, Ridolfo. — B. 1483, d. 1561. 
GiORDANi, LucA. — B. c. 1632, d. 1705. 
GioTTiNo [Giotto di Maestro Stefano]. — Act. middle 

of 14th cent. 
Giotto. — B. 1276, d. 1336. 
Giovanni da S, Giovanni [Giov. Manozzi]. — B. 1590, 

d. 1636. 
Giovanni da Milano. — Act. middle of 14th cent. 
Giovanni di Paolo. — B. 1403, d. 1482. 
Giovanni del Ponte. — B. 1385, d. 1437. 
GiuLio Romano. — B. 1492 (?),d. 1546. 
GiusTo DI Andrea Manzini. — B. 1440, d. 1496. 
Graffione, II [Giovanni Scheggini]. — B. 1455, d. 

Granacci, Francesco. — B. 1477, d. 1543. 

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Grien, Hans Baldung. — B. 1476 (?), d. 1545. 
GuiDo Reni. — B. 1575, d. 1642. 

Holbein. — B. 1497, d. 1543. 

Jacopo DAL Casentino. — Act. middle of 14th cent. 
Jacopo del Sellaio. — B. 1442, d. 1495. 

Kranach, Lucas. — B. 1472, d. 1553. 

Leonardo da Vinci.— ^B. 1452, d. 15 19. 
Lippi, FiLippiNo. — B. 1457, d. 1504. 
Lippi, Fra Filippo. — B. 1406, d. 1469. 
Lippo. — B. 1357, d. after 1430. 
Lippo Memmi. — B. (?), d. 1357 (?). 

LoRENZKTTI, AmBROGIO. Act. I233--I348. 

LoRENZETTI, PlETRO. Act. I305-I348. 

Lorenzo di Credi. — B. 1459, d. 1537. 
Lorenzo Monaco. — Act. 1 370-1425. 
Lorenzo di Niccolo. — Act. begioning of 1 5th cent. 
Lorenzo da Viterbo. — B. 1446 (?), d. 1470. 

Mainardi, Sebastian o. — B. (?), d. 1513. 
Margaritone. — B. i2i6(?), d. i293(?). 
Marinus van Roymerswale. — Act. 1 520-1 560. 
Masaccio. — B. 1401, d. 1428. 
Maso di Banco. — Act. 1343. 
Masolino. — B. 1384, d. after 1435. 
Memling. — B. before 1430, d. 1495. 
Michelangelo. — B. I475, d. 1564. 
MoR, Antonius. — B. 1512, d. I576(?). 
MoRTo DA Feltre [Lorenzo Luzzo]. — B. 1485, d. 

Niccolo di Pietro Gerinl^ — Act. 1 368-1 41 5. 
Niccolo di Piero. — B. (?), d. after 1444. 

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Orcagna, Andrea. — B. i3o8(?), d. 1368. 
Orcagna, Leonardo. — B. (?), d. 1365. 

Paolo Uccello. — B. 1397, d. 1475. 
Paolo Veronese, — B. 1528, d. 1588. 
Perugino. — B. 1446, d. 1524. 
Pesellino, Francesco. — B. 1422, d. 1457. 
Pier di Cosimo. — B. 1462, d. 1521. 
Plautilla Nelli. — B. 1523, d. (?). 
Poccetti, Bernardo. — B. 1542, d. 1612. 
PoNTORMo, Jacopo. — B. 1 494, d. 135^' 
PoLLAiuoLo, Antonio. — B, 1432/d. 1498. 
PoLLAiuoLO, Piero. — B. 1 443, d. 1496. 
Poppi, Francesco da. — B. 1541, d. 1597. 
Pordenone. — B. 1483, d. 1540. 
Puccio Capanna. — Act. 1349. 

Raffaelle. — B. 1483, d. 1520. 

Raffaello di Carli. — B. c. 1470, d. after 1516. 

Raffaello del Garbo. — B. 1466, d. 1524. 

RossellIi Cosimo. — B. 1439, d. 1507. 

Rosso Fiorentino. — B. 1494, d. 1541. 

Rubens. — B. 1577, d. 1640. 

Salvator Rosa. — B. 161 5, d. 1673. 
Salviati [Francesco Rossi]. — B. i5iO|d. 1563. 
Santi, Giovanni. — B. 1430 (?), d. 1494. 
Santi di Tito. — B. 1538, d. 1603. 
Smeraldo di Giovanni. — B. (?), d. 1444. 
SiGNORELLi. — B. 1441, d. 1532. 
SiMONE Martini. — B. 1285, ^- '344* 
Sodoma. — B. 1477, d. 1549. 

SoGLIANIi GlOVANTONIO. B. (?), d. 1530. 

Spinello. — B. 1333, d. 1410. 
Starnina, Gherardo. — B. i354(?), d. 1408. 
Stefano di Antonio di Vanni. — d. 1407, d. 1483. 
Stefano Fiorentino.' — B. 1301 (?), d. i3So(0* 

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Strozzi, Zanobi. — B. 141 2 (?),(!. 1468. 
SusTERMANs, Justus. — B. 1597, d. 1681. 

Titian. — B. 1477,(1. 1576. 

Ugolino da Siena. — B. 1260, d. 1339. 

Vasari. — B. 151 1, d. 1574. 

ViTi, TiMOTEo. — B. 1469, d. 1523. 

Zucchero, Federigo. — B. 1543, d. 1609. 

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S. Ambrogio, I. 

SS. Annunziata, 6. 

S. Ansano, Fiesole, 25. 

S. Appollonia, 30. 

Arcetri, Villa della Gal- 

LINA, 36. 

Arte della Lana, 229. 

Albertinelli. 78, 82. 

AUori, Allessandro, 122, 144. 

Allori, Cristofano, 141. 

'* Amico di Sandro," 83, 130. 

Andrea dal Castagno, 21, 32, 33, 

44, 108. 109, 115, 169. 
Andrea del Sarto, 7, 8, 11-15, 21, 

23, 86, 158, 232, 243-252. 
Angelico, Fra, 41, jj, m, 112, 

147, 148, 149, 154, 155, 156, 158- 

164, 166, 167, 192. 
Antonello da Messina, 81. 
Antonio Veneziano, ^^y 260. 


Badia, 37. 

Badia a Fiesole, 42. 
Bargello, 43. 
S. Barn ABA. 55. 

BiGALLO, 56. 

Buonarroti, Casa. 159. 

Bacchiacca, 85. 

Baldovinetti, 5, 7, 9, 108, 118, 

144, 173, 204, 205, 206, 209, 270. 
Bartolommeo, Fra, 142, 145, 153, 

154, 157, 161, 162, 165. 
Bassano, Jacopo, 233. 
Benedetto, Fra, 158-160, 163-168. 
Benozzo Gozzoli, 238-242. 
Berna, 255. 


Bicci di Lorenzo, 107, 9, 145, 

Bicci, Lorenzo di, 108, 121, 140. 
Bicci, Neri di, 31, 32, 123, 126, 

127, 131, 134, 136, 152, 178, 

213, 214, 219, 230, 25s, 257, 262, 

264, 265. 
Bonsignori, 48. 
Borgognone (Jacques Courtois), 

Botticelli, 25, 86, 171, 174, 175. 

216, 234, 256. 
Botticini, Francesco, 253. 
Bronzino, 23, 104, 106, 125, 139. 
Buffalmacco, 39, 76, 192. 
Bugiardini, 60, 177. 


Carmine, 61. 

Certosa di Val d'Ema, 75. 

CoRsiNi, Palazzo, 79. 

S. Croce, 88. 

Carlo Dolci, 129, 233, 235. 

Cavallini, 20, 134, 142, 143. 

Cigoli, 274. 

Cimabue, 176, 260, 271. 

S. Domenico a Fiesole, hi. 
DuoMO, 113. 
DuoMo A Fiesole, 120. 
Daddi, Bernardo, 58, 102, 219, 

Dello, 23, 196. 

Domenico di Michelino, 117. 
Domenico Veneziano, 88, 141. 

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Donatello. 118. 
Duccio, 176, 177. 


S. Egidio, 121. 


S. Felice, 122. 
S. FelicitA, 124. 
Ferroni, Galleria, 128. 
Fiesole, Badia, 42. 
flesole s. domenico, iii. 
Fiesole Duomo, 120. 


Francesco da Poppi, 116. 
Franciabigio, 8, 17, 245-248. 

S. Giovanni dei Cavalieri, 
Gaddi, Agnolo, 2, 89, 100, loi, 

104, lis, 170. 175. 259. 

Gaddi, Gaddo, 113. 
Gaddi, Giovanni, 50, 260. 
Gaddi, Taddeo, 22, 23, 56, 89, 95, 

105, 106, 109, 126, 175, 219, 222, 

226, 259. 
Gentile da Fabriano, 214, 272. 
Ghirlandaio, Benedetto, 177. 
Ghirlandaio, David, 6. 
Ghirlandaio, Domenico, 90, 94, 

105. 113, 132, 156, 182-189, 215, 

217, 219, 266-269, 274. 
Ghirlandaio, Michele, 259. 
Ghirlandaio, Ridolfo, 6, 57, 81, 

122, 217, 275. 
Giottino, 43, 57, 102, 103, 193, 

Giotto, 39, 44, 50, SI, 94, 95, 96, 

97» 98, 99, 102, 105, 106, 109, 

141, 174, 193, 218. 
Giovanni da S. Giovanni, 42, 60, 

95, no, 256. 
Giovanni da Milano, 75, 82, 92, 

Giovanni di Paolo, 47. 
Giovanni del Ponte, 272. 
Giovanni Toscani, 263. 

Giovanni da Udine, 78. 
Giulio Romano, 80, 130. 
Giusto di Andrea, 152. 
Graffione, II. 5. 
Grien, Hans Baldung, 46. 


Hoffermans, 45. 
Holbein, 233, 235. 

Innocenti, 132. 


Jacob von Amsterdam, 45, 46. 
Jacopo dal Casentino, 73, 226, 

Jacopo da Empoli, 60. 
Jacopo del Sellaio, 26, ?8, 130, 



Kranach, 233. 


S. Leonardo in Arcetri, 135. 
S. Lorenzo, 136. 
S. Lucia de' Magnoli, 140. 
Leonardo da Vinci, 273. 
Ligozzi, 274. 

Lippi, Filippino, 37, 39, 61, 64, 
65, 67, 68, 69, 83, 179-182, 235, 

Lippi, Fra Filippo, 107, 138. 
Lippo, 170. 

Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, 46. 
Lorenzo di Credi, in, 112, 116, 

119, 228, 255. 
Lorenzo Monaco, 39, 77, 112, 150, 

212, 227, 262, 263. 
Lorenzo di Niccolo, 106. 
Lorenzo da Viterbo, 40. 


S. Marco, 141. 

S. Maria degli Angeli, 168. 

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S. Maria Maddalena de' 

Pazzi, 171. 
S. Maria Maggiore, 169. 
S. Maria Novella, 174. 
S. Maria Nuova, 121. 
S. MiNiATo AL Monte, 204. 
Monte Oliveto, 211. 
Mainardi, 52, 90, 91, 140. 
Manetti, 7. 
Margaritone, 91, 100. 
Marinus van Roymerswale, 50. 
Masaccio, 39, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 

66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 

170, 174, 214. 
Maso di Banco, 103, 236. 
Masolino, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 72. 
Memling, 87. 

Michelangelo, 59, 273, 274. 
Mor, Antonius, 87. 


S. NircoLo, 212. 

Nattier, 236. 

Nelli, Plautilla, 203. 

Niccol6 di Piero Gerini, 91, 127, 

Niccolo di Piero Spinello, 106. 


Ognissanti, 214. 
Opera del Duomo, 220. 
Or S. Michele, 225. 
Orcagna, 23, 104, 116, 190-192, 
226-228, 237. 


Palazzo Vecchio, 273. 
S. Pancrazio, 230. 
Pitti Palazzo, 231. 
Palma Vecchio, 80, 233. 
Paolo di Stefano, 205. 
Paolo Veronese, 232. 
Passignano, 144, 274. 
Perugino, 22, 106, 128, 171. 
Pesellino, 59, 105, 107, 171. 
Pesello, 115. 

Pier di Cosimo, 23, 134, 137, 

Poccetti, 20, 23, 76, 144, 146, 148, 

PoUaiuolo, Antonio, 7, 36, 86, 144, 

207, 213, 223, 225. 
Pontormo, 8, i8, 25, 6i, 77, 81, 

82, 124, 168. 
Pordenone, 60. 
Puccio Capanna, 39, 174, 264. 

S. Remigio, 236. 

RiccARDi Palazzo, 237. 

RucELLAi Chapel, 230. 

Raflfaelle, 85. 

Raffaello di Carli, 86, 258. 

Raffaellino del Garbo, 139, 140, 

171, 173, 212, 258. 
Reni, Guido, 87. 
Rosa, Salvator, 80. 
Rosselli, Cosimo, 3, 7, lo, 28, 145, 

Rosso, 8, 19, 134, 137, 259. 
Rubens, 232. 


S. Salvi, 243. 
ScALzo, Chiostro, 245. 

S. SiMONE, 252. 

S. Spirito, 253. 
Salviati, Francesco, 54. 
Santi, Giovanni, 82, 85. 
Santi di Tito, 112, 114. 
Schalcken, 79. 
Sebastiano del Piombo, 86. 
Signorelli, 84. 
Simone Martini, 260. 
Smeraldo di Giovanni, 272. 
Sodoma, 211. 
Sogliani, 112, 153, 228. 
Spinello, 73, 96, 140, 203, 208, 

209, 210. 
Spinello, Filippo, 170. 
Stamina, 88. 

Stefano del Ponte, 193, 197. 
Stefano Fiorentino, 105, 260. 
Strozzi, Zanobi, 140. 
Sustermans, 79. 

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S. Trinita, 261. 
Titian, 233. 



Vecchio, Palazzo, 273. 
Vasari, 39, 75, 80, 118, 274. 
Venusti, Marcello, 60. 
Viti, Timoteo. 84. 

Uccello, Paolo, 114, 118, 170, 194- 2. 

196, 210. ^ 

Ugolino da Siena. 226. Zucchcro, Federigo, 118. 


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